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Negotiation O F Busine

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Distributive bargaining is basically a competition over who is going to get the most of a
limited resource
The______ is the point beyond which a person will not go and would rather break off negotiations
resistance point
The spread between the resistance points is called the
bargaining range
The package of issues for negotiation is the
bargaining mix
Channeling all communication through a _______ reduces inadvertent revelation of information.
team spokesman
In some ways, the ultimate weapon in negotiation is to threaten to
terminate negotiation
An offer that may have been accepted had it emerged as a result of __________ may be rejected when it is presented as a fait accompli.
concession making
_________ is a conflictd situation wherein parties seek their own advantage through tactics including concealing information, attemption to mislead or using manipulative actions
Distributive bargaining
The objective of both parties in distributive bargaining is to obtain as much of the ______ as possible.
bargaining range
A large majority of agreements in distributive bargaining are reached when the deadline is
The bargaining range is defined by
the opening offer and the counteroffer
Parties feel better about a settlement when negotiations involve a
progresssion of concessions
Hardball tactics are designed to
pressure targeted parties to do things they would not otherwise do
Aggerssive behavior tactics include
all of the above
The negotiator's basic strategy is to
reach the final settlement as close to the other's resistance point as possible
What are four important tactical tasks for a negotiator in a distributive bargaining situation?
1. Assess the other party's outcome values and the costs of terminating negotiations. 2. manage the other party's impression of one's own outcome values. 3. modify the other party's perception of his or her own outcome values. 4. manipulate the actual costs of delaying or aborting negotiaions.
Discuss the importance of reciprocating (or not reciprocating) concessions.
Concession making indicates and acknowledgement of the other party and a movement towards the other's position. It implies recognition of that position and it's legitimacy. If the other party does not reciprocate, the concession maker may appear to be weaker by having given up something and received nothing in return.  If the giver has made a major concession on a significant point, it is expected that the reuturn offer will be on the same item or one of similar weight and somewhat comparable magnitude. To make an additional concession when none has been received can imply weakness and can squander valuable maneuvering room.
Those wishing to achieve integrative results find that they must manage the _____ and _____ of the negotiation in order to gain the willing cooperation and commitment of the other party.
content and process
Successful integrative negotiaion requires that the negotiators search for soluitions that meet the ___ and ____ of both sides.
needs and objectives
In an integrative negotiation, negotiators must be ____ about their interests and needs, but ____ about the manner in which these interests and needs are met through solutions.
firm but flexible
For integrative negotiation to succeed, the parties must be motivated to _____ rather than compete.
When people trust each other, they are more likely to share _______ and ______ accurately their needs, positions, and the facts of the situation.
information and communicate
In which major step of the integrative negotiaion process of identifying and defining the problem would you likely find that if the problem is complex and multifaced the parties may not even be able to agree on a statement of the problem?
state the problem with an eye toward practicality and comprehensiveness
Substantive interests
are the interests that relate to the focal issues under negotiation.
In nonspecific compensation
one person is allowed to obtain his/her objectives and "pay off" the other person for accomodating his interests.
What questions can be asked to facilitate nonspecific compensation?
What are the other party's goals and values?
Which of the following is not necessary for integrative negotiation to succeed?
Each party should be as interested in the objectives and problems of the other as each is in his/her own - each must assujme responsibility for the other's needs and outcomes as well as for his/her own.
Integrative negotiaion fails because
all of the above
Which of the following 5-step processes has been used successfully in a collective bargaining situation?
commitment, explanation, validation, prioritization, negotiation.
What are the four major steps in the integrative negotiaion process?
1. identify and define the problem. 2. understand the problem and bring interests and needs to the surface. 3. generate alternative solutions to the problem. 4. choose a specific solution from among those alternatives.
How should the problem statement be constructed?
state the problem succinctly as possible while assuring that the most important dimensions and elements are included.
Define integrative negotiation.
A collaborative process in which the parties define their common problem and persue strategies to solve it.
What is the primary reason negotiationrs do not pursue integrative agreements?
Negotiators sometimes fail to pursue integrative agreements because they do not perceive a situation as having integrative potential and are primarily motivated to achieve outcomes that satisfy only their needs.
State the "relational" definition of power as defined by Deutsch.
An actor...has power in a given situation to the degree that he can satisfy the purposes that he is attempting to fulfill in that situation. Power is a relational concept; it does not reside in the individual but rather in the relationship of the person to his environment. Thus, the power of an actor in a given situation is determined by the characteristics of the situation as well as by his own characteristics.
Define legitimate power.
Legitimate power is derived from occupying a particular job, office, or postion in an organizational hierarchy.  The power resides in the title, duties, and responsibilities of the job itself.
Why is BATNA a good source of power?
BATNA enables you to walk away from this negotiation as long as you can get your need met and interests addressed somewhere else.
What is the problem of "dancing with elephants"?
The concept is defined as striking a deal with an opponent much bigger than you.
Which of the following statements about legitimate power is false?
Social structures are inherently inefficient.....
Resources are more useful as instruments of power to the extent they are highly valued to be participants in the negotiation. Which of the following is not a resource of organizational context?
Stress, in imposing deadlines, increasing workloads.
The concept of criticality in a commiunication network involves
the essentiality of the information that flows through the node to the organization's mission, major task, or key product.
In which of the following five aspects of network structure would you find the role of a gatekeeper?
One way that lower power parties can deal with the big players in business deals and partnerships is by limiting the ways you can do business or who you can do business with and it is an example of one of the following dealings. Which one?
constrain yourself.
Power is the _____ to alter the attitudes and behaviors of others that an individual brings to a given situation.
Within the context of negotiation, _______ is the most common source of power.
______ power is accorded to those who are seen as having achieved some level of command and mastery of a body of information.
In his book, Managing with Power, Jeffrey Pfeffer illustrated how powerful political and corporate figures build empires based on
resource control
In allocating resources, the power holder must be willing to dole them out depending on the other's _________ with the power holder's request.
compliance or cooperation
Culture-both organizational and national-often translates into deeply embedded structural ____ in a society.
In dealing with those who have more power, _____ the information that would be most compelling or persuasive to the other side; ______ it so that you can draw on it quickly and _____ it to be maximally persuasive.
analyze, organize, assemble
Tactics designed to create power equalization are often employed as a way to
level the playing field
Nearly 50 years ago there were five major types of sources of power that could be exercised. All but one of the following are part of that group. Which one is not?
Personal power.
Information as a source of power is
the accumulation......of data to change the other person's point of view or position on an issue.
The concept of _____ ethics states that the rightness of an action is determined by evaluating the pros and cons of its consequences.
end result
_____ hold that the moral value and worth of a particular action is judged on the basis of the consequences it produces.
Social contract ethicists focus on what individuals owe to their _____ and what they can or should expect in return.
The six categories of marginally ethical negotiating tactics......_____
Misrepresentation by ______ is defined as failing to disclose information which would benefit the other.
Norms are the _____ social rules.....
Asking questions can reveal a great deal of information, some of which the negotiator may intentionally leave ______.
The concept of "duty ethics" states that
The rightness of an action is determined by existing laws......
Only one of the approaches to ethical reasoning has as its central tenet that actions are more right if they promote more happiness....Which approach applies?
end-result ethics
A doctor is facing the moral dilemma between a mandate to save lives and the mandate to relieve undue suffering for those whose lives can not be saved.....
duty ethics
What is the implication of the dilemma of trust?
We believe everything the other says and can be manipulated by their dishonesty.
What tactic is seen as inappropriate and unethical in negotiation?
all of the above
Which is a category of Marginally Ethical Negotiating Tactics?
all of the above
When using the justification that "the tactic was unavoidable" the negotiator is saying that
the negotiator was not in full control.....
Research studies have shown that individuals who are strongly Machiavellian are
all of the above
Research results have generally indicated that higher levels of moral development are associated with
more resistance to authority figures......
When using the "intimidation" tactic to detect deception, one should
make a "no nonsense" accusation of the other
Which of the following tactics is the least preferable method of responding to another party's distributive tactics or "dirty tricks"?
responding in kind
What is the implication of the dilemma of honesty?
If we disclose to the other party our exact requirements and limits in negotiation, it is likely that we will never do better than this minimum level.
How does locus of control affect ethical behavior?
Individuals who are high in internal control are more likely to do what they think is right, and feel that they have more control over producing the outcomes they want to achieve in a situation in which there were temptations to be less than ethical. Locus of control seems most important when individuals can also exert control over outcomes. Locus of control appears to be a moderately powerful contributor to ethical decision making.
Among the strengths of individual contract negotiaion is that there is no _____ amongst team members.
Problem solvers _______ information to discover what the other side thinks is important and to facilitate problem solving efforts. By contrast, competitors ________ information to maximize their own individual gains.
share, withhold/manipulate
Garrett asserts that a proven essential element in contract negotiations is a list of ________
must haves.
Garrett lists pricing as the _____ item to be discussed in contract negotiations.
The most effective contract negotiation plans for both buyers and sellers, typically contain five (4 listed) elements:
strategies, counter tactics, must haves, pricing
Among Garrett's recommended successful strategies is the idea of maintaining ______, which roughly translates, "If you don't ask for it you will not get it".
high aspirations
When you give concessions to the other side, the _______ of the concessions convey a lot of valuable _______ about your strategy, style and conviction.
size, information
The "_______" is described as explaining to the other side you agree with their requests/demands, however, another key person in your organization will not approve.
scape goat
Garrett calls the tactic in which you ask the other party for everything you want and more is the "_____" "_____".
full monty
When encountering the "scape goat" tactic, one of the possible countertactic that Garrett proposes is "
Who is your boss?
The __________ is a tactic in which the buyer offers to tie the results of this deal directly to the seller's chance of obtaining a future deal.
follow-on deal
Some contract negotiators use ______ _______ which are questions that a party ususally can't answer and that have a message more important than the ______ they seek.
loaded questions, information