NCLEX - Pn Lab Values / Patient Positions / Etc.

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Sodium (Na)
135 - 145 mEq/L
Maintains osmotic pressure and acid-base balance. Assists with the transmission of nerve impulses.
Potassium (K)
3.5 - 5.0 mEq/L
Used to evaluate cardiac, renal, and GI functions
Chloride (Cl)
96 - 106 mEq/ L
Acts as buffer during oxygen and CO2 exchange in RBC's
Bicarbonate (HCO3 -)
22-29 mEq/L
Bicarbonate-Carbonic acid buffering system. Mainly responsible for regulating pH of by fluids.
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT)
20 - 35 seconds
Monitor heparin therapy or identify coagulation disorders
Prothrombin Time (PT)
Values:  9.5 - 11.5 second
Used to regulate Warfarin / Coumadin therapy
Platelet Count
150,000 - 400,000
Low platelet count = bleeding precautions
Red Blood Cells (RBC's)
Male 4.6–6.2 million/mm3
Female 4.2–5.4 million/mm3
Leukocytes (WBC)
Calcium (Ca+)
9–11 mg/dL or 4.5–5.5 mEq/L
Fowler's position
The client is supine, and the head of the bed is elevated to 45 to 60 degrees.
High Fowler's position
The client is supine, and the head of the bed is elevated to 90 degrees; the knees of the bed are often slightly raised to prevent client sliding and shear injuries.
Lateral (side-lying) position
The client is lying on the side, and the head and shoulders are aligned with the hips and the spine parallel to the edge of the mattress; the head, neck, and upper arm are supported by a pillow; the lower shoulder is pulled forward slightly and, along with the elbow, it is flexed at 90 degreesl the legs are flexed or extended, and a pillow is placed to support the back
Lithotomy position
The client is lying on his or her back with the hips and knees flexed at right angles and the feet in stirrups
Prone position
The client is lying on his or her abdomen with the head turned to the side.
Reverse Trendelenburg's position
The bed is tilted so that the foot of the client's bed is lower than the head of the bed
Semi-Fowler's position (low Fowler's position)
The client is supine, and the head of the bed is elevated approximately 30 degrees
Sim's position
The client is lying on his or her side with the body turned prone at 45 degrees; the lower leg is extended with the upper leg flexed at the hip and knee at a 45- to 90- degree angle.
Supine Position
The client is lying on his or her back; the head and shoulders are usually slightly elevated with a small pillow the arms and legs are extended, and the legs are slightly abducted; an open airway should be preserved in clients with decreased levels of consciousness.
Trendelenburg's position
The bed is tilted so that the head of the client's bed is lower than the foot of the bed; this position is contraindicated for clients with head injuries, increased intracranial pressure, spinal cord injuries, and certain cardiac and respiratory disorders.
Chadwick's Sign
The violet coloration of the vaginal mucous membranes that is visible from about 4 weeks' gesttation that is caused by increased vascularity. This is a probable sign of pregnancy.
Vaginal discharge from the uterus that consists of blood from the vessels of the placental site, tissue debris from the decidua, and mucus. Lochia last for 2-6 weeks' postpartum, and it differentiated by color.
Nagele's Rule
Add 7 days to the first day of the last menstrual period. Subract 3 months from that date, and then add 1 year. Alternatively, add 7 days to the last menstrual cycle, then count forward 9 months.
Human offspring from the time of birth to the day 28 of life.
A pregnant woman. The woman is call gravida I or primigravida. Gravida II during the second, and so on.
The number of pregnancies that have reached viability, regardless of whether the infants were alive or stillborn.
True labor
Contractions occur regularly they become stronger, last longer, and occur closer together.
False labor
False labor does not produce dilation, effacement, or descent. Contractions are irregular and without progression. Walking has no effect on contractions and often relieves the condition.
Apgar Score interventions
0-3 Infant requires resuscitation
4-7 Gently stimulate, Rub the infant's back, Administer oxygen to the infant
8-10 No intervention except support the infant's spontaneous efforts
Congestive Heart Failure
The inability of the heart to pump sufficiently to meet the metabolic needs of the body
Highly contagious bacterial infection of the skin caused by B-hemolytic streptoccoci, Staphylococcus aureus, or both
Isolation Precaution: Standard
Applies to all patients. Basic handwashing
Isolation Precaution: Droplet
Private Room, surgical mask for staff & visitors ENTERING room. Surgical mask for patient EXITING room for transport. If cohorting, maintain 3 feet distance between the two. standard as needed
Isolation Precaution: Airborne
Private room > Negative pressure room. Close door at all times. N-95 particulate respirator mask for staff & visitors ENTERING room. Surgical mask for patient EXITING room. standard as needed.
Isolation Precaution: Contact
Contact: Gloves, Gown. NO MASK. Leave equipment inside the room. Leave designated instruments (Steth, BP Cuff etc) outside of the room for specific patient use. Enter room clean, exit room clean. Standard as needed.
Airborne Diseases
Measles (Rubeola)
Chickenpox (Varicella)
Herpes Varicella Zoster
Bacterial TB (aka: mycobacterium TB, PTB)
Droplet Diseases
Sepsis, Scarlet Fever, Streptococcal Pharyngitis
Parvovirus, Pertussis (whooping cough)
Pneumonic Plague
Influenza (Haemophiluz Influenza)
Diptheria ,Epiglottitis, Rubella (German Measles)
Mumps, Mycoplasma Pneumoniae
Adenovirus (perspiratory)
Bacterial Meningitis (aka. Neisseria Meningititis)
Contact Diseases
Skin Infections
Wound Infections
Ebola Virus Infections; Hemorragic Disease
Eye Infection (Conjunctivitis)
C. Defificle
Hepa A (only is incontinent or diapered)
Dehydration Sign and Symptoms
1) Decreased Urinary output
2) Increased urine specific gravity
3) Decreased Skin Turgor
4) Decreased Weight (weight loss)
5) Increased hematocrit
6) Decreased blood volume
7) Shock
Over hydration Sign and Symptoms
1) Increased Urinary output
2) Decreased urine specific gravity
3) Edema
4) Increased Weight (weight gain)
5) Decreased hematocrit
6) Increased blood volume
7) Shock
Magnesium (Mg)
1.7 to 2.2 mg/dL
Addison's Disease
Addison's disease is a disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of their hormones. (cortisol & aldosterone) Symptoms: Fatigue, Weakness, patchy skin color. Pt needs hormone replacement therapy.
Cushing's Disease
Cushing’s disease is a condition in which the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ATCH). Causes too much cortisol production. Symptoms:
  • Upper body obesity (above the waist) and thin arms and legs. Round, red, full face (moon face)