Music GCSE

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Music Gcse. Helpful Words.

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emphasis on a note or chord
a very short ornamental note played just before the principle melodic note 
added- note chord
a chord which includes one or more non-standard notes. like 2nd or 6th above the root
an upbeat , an accented note or group of notes that come before the strong beat of a phrase
atonal music
music that avoids keys or modes i.e- no one pitch stands our in the way the tonic does in tonal music 
an instrument from west Africa, similar to a xylophone 
balenced phrase
phrases of the same length paired together so that the first one sounds like a question and the second an answer
bass ( voice)
a low male voice 
bass ( line)
the lowest pitched line in a piece of music 
blues note
a note performed at a slightly lower pitch than normal  
a style of music created by an African american community during the early 20th century 
in jazz and pop music, a short instrumental solo
in jazz and pop, a contrasting passage that connects two longer sections together.
broken chord
a chord in which notes are played one after another instead of at the same time
call and response 
the second phrase is heard as  reply to the first one 
chorus ( structure)
the repeated phrase in a verse - chorus structure 
chorus ( choir)
a movement for a whole choir in a large scale choral work 
chorus ( blues)
one statement of the 12 bar blues progression 
cirlce of 5ths
a harmonic progression in which the root of each of each succeeding chord is a 5th lower than the previous one 
a symbol placed at the beginning of a line of music that defines what the pitches of the notes are 
a section of music that ends the piece 
compound time
a metre in which  the main beat is sub-divided into into three equal portions  
a conjunct melody moves by steps rather than by larger intervals 
notes that are consonant sound pleasing when played  together 
an accompanying part in instrumental music of the baroque period. The continuo is played by a bass instrument and a harmony instrument 
adjective to describe music that uses the counterpoint 
counter melody 
a second melody in a piece that is heard at the same time as the main melody, to provide contrast 
a texture in which two or more melodic lines, each one significant in itself , are played together at the same time
a gradual increase in dynamics 
cross rhythm 
the presence in a passage of music of conflicting rhythms 
an audio effect that can be electronically added to give the effect of an echo
when two or more instruments or voices have a musical conversation  
a gradual decrease in dynamics
moves by leaps or intervals larger than a 2nd 
notes that are dissonant produce a clashing sound when played together 
a digital effect effect that alters the sound of an instrument so that it becomes rougher and harsher
the fifth note in a scale 
Dorian mode 
dotted rhythm
a rhythm that contain pairs of notes in the pattern long, short 
a note or passage in one part that is played by another part at the same time .
drum machine 
an electronic device that replicates the sounds of various percussion instruments.
en harmonic 
the same pitch notated in two different ways 
short for equalization. process of adjusting the relative levels  of frequencies in an audio signal  
a voice technique used by men to sing notes higher than their normal range 
a short passage of music between two two sections of music 
a digital effect that combines two copies of the same signal, with the second delayed slightly to produce a swirling sweeping effect 
free tempo
describes music without a regular pulse 
harmonic rhythm 
how often the harmony changes in a passage of music 
a rhythmic device in which two bars of 3-4 sounds like three bars of 2-4 
a chord made up of 6 notes
imperfect cadence 
a cadence consisting of any chord - usually 1,2 or 4 followed by 5 
the choice of instruments in a piece 
the distance between two notes 
when a melody is inverted, the intervals between the notes are turned upside down 
a poem or piece that expresses grief 
 a texture made up of independent lines which are designed to fit in together 
one syllable played over several notes 
mixolydian  mode 
a scale that uses tone, tone, semi-tone, tone ,tone, semi-tone, tone
different types of seven note scales, other than major and minor 
recording a new part over the top of existing material 
used in stereo recordings to control where the sound is coming from.
parallel motion
movement of two or more parts in the same direction, with the interval between between them remaining essentially the same 
perfect cadence 
a cadence consisting of the dominant  followed by the tonic
pentantonic scale 
a scale made up of five notes
pitch bend 
a short slide up or down to a main note 
plagal cadence 
a cadence consisting of the sub dominant chord followed by the tonic 
a short piece of music that often acts as an introduction to a longer work 
a regularly occurring sence of beat  
a part of the range of and instrument or voice 
an effect used to alter music so that it sounds as if it was recorded in an echoey space 
a short catchy melody that is repeated through out a jazz or pop song
a musical structure in which a main melody alternates with contrasting sections (ABACADA)
a short section from a recorded track that can be digitally manipulated and altered for insertion into a new track
immediate repetition of an idea at a different pitch  
atonal music  that uses a predetermined series of 12 chromatic notes to guarantee  equality of all pitches
seventh chord
a chord made up of a triad and a not a 7th above the root 
high female voice 
swung rhythm
in jazz and blues a relaxing of strict quaver rhythm 
vocal music that has one note to each syllable 
a type of composition for an orchestra usually in four parts 
an electronic device with a key board that allows the player to add digital effects and manipulate the sounds produced 
ternary form 
the form ABA
the elements of music concerned with the actual sound quality or tone colour of the music
the use of major and minor keys in music 
a musical effect that refers to a very quick and continuous repetition of a single note 
simultaneous performance of the same pitch by more than one person 
a highly skilled singer capable of performing difficult music   
word painting 
the use of musical devices and features to illustrate and highlight specific words in the lyrics  
key feature of western classical music 
simple harmoniessame mood through out the piecechange in dynamics are suddenlots of ornamentationcomplex contrapuntal writing mostly string musicuse of a contiuo 
when was and the glory of the lord composed ?
instrumentation in and the glory of the lord  
choir made up of sopranos, altos, tenors and bass' accompanied by strings and a continuo of cello, harpsichord and an organ  
structure in and the glory of the lord 
orchestral introduction- shorted versions of this is repeated laterno set form - based on four different motifs 
motif 1 in and the glory of the lord
first sung by the altos starting in bar 11 its clearly in A major 
motif 2 in ' and the glory of the lord ' 
first sung by the tenors starting in bar 17. it uses a descending sequence and melisma on the word revealed 
motif 3 in' and the glory of the lord'
first sung by the altos, starting in bar 43. short descending figure form A to E 
motif 4 in ' and the glory of the lord 
first sung by the tenors and basses starting in bar 51 . most of it is on the same pitch and uses longer notes.
the metre of and the glory of the lord 
this piece is in the dance like tempo 3-4 
the tempo of ' and the glory of the lord'
it maintains a fast tempo almost until the end when there is a bar of total silence and then three bars in a slower tempo
the rhythm of and the glory of the lord 
there are a lot of hemiolas in the piece such as at bar 9-10
the composer of ' and the glory of the lord 
the tonality of ' and the glory of the lord 
the piece is in A major it modulates to two related keys. the dominant; E major and the supertonic ; B major the work ends on a plagal cadence of A major
the harmony of and the glory of the lord 
its diatonic 
the texture of ' and the glory of the lord 
the piece alternates between homophonic and contrapuntal passages. there is a very short section that is monophonic there is imitation for example in bar 17 ' shall be revealed' is sung by the altos then imitated.
the number of parts in ' and the glory of the lord 
the number of parts in and the gory of the lord varies sometimes there is one such as the altos in bars 43-46. at other time there is two, three or four parts 
the word settings in ' and the glory of the lord' 
there is a mixture of syllabic and melismatic word settings. 'for the mouth of the lord hath spoken it' is syllabic and the word revealed is melismatic the phrases are repeated many times to make the words clear 
what country was 'and the glory of the lord ' composed in ?
key features of classical music
balanced and clear phrases that form questions and answersmore contrasts within a movement changes in dynamics not always suddensimple textures-often homophonic uses wind instruments and string instruments 
who composed symphony no.40 in G minor 
when was symphony number 40 composed
tonality of symphony number 40
the movement is in sonata form in the key of G minor 
the exposition in symphony no. 40  
first subject ; a melody that is a falling motif played by strings G minorsecond subject: a melody with descending chromatic patterns played by wind and strings B flat major (relative major) 
the development in symphony no.40
based on the first subject which is developed and fragmented  moves through various keys  starting in F sharp minor
the recapitulation in symphony no.40
first subject; repeated with some variation G minor second subject : repeated with some variation G minorcoda: repeated perfect cadences in G minor finishes the piece
the structure of symphony number 40
exposition( first subject, second subject), development, recapitulation ( first subject, second subject, coda )
melody in symphony no.40
made up of balanced, four or eight bar phrases- sounds like question and answer (for example the second subject ends with an imperfect cadence- it sounds like a question its followed by a 4 bar phrase that ends with a perfect cadence- the answer.) many phrases are scalic ( based on scales)
the harmony in symphony no.40
diatonic and functional- bases around major and minor triads chromatic chords such as a diminished 7tha circle of 5ths progression ( in the second subject)lots of pedal notes
rhythm of symphony number 40
rhythm fairly simple, although there are some dotted rhythms and syncopation to add interest short rhythmic ideas are repeated  
the metre of symphony no.40
the metre is 4-4 throughout 
the tempo of symphony no.40
the tempo is ' molto alegro' - very fast 
the texture of symphony no.40
the texture is mostly harmonic but there is counter point and imitation , octave doubling and dialogue between the wing and the strings
the dynamics in symphony no.40
exposition; first subject is quiet, transition is loud, second subject gets louder development ;quiet, loud ,quietrecapitulation; same as expositiondynamics mostly sudden
use of instruments in symphony no.40
strings; busy, play melody and quick running scaleswoodwind; play sustained notes and some scaleshorns in different keys ( G and B flat)- maximize the number of notes- repetitive and held notes and sustained harmonies 
key features of romantic music 
expressive and emotionalrich chromatic harmonies- use of dissonance and modulation to more remote keystechnical advances - the rise of the virtuosostructure and form become longer descriptive titles
when was prelude no.15 in D flat composed
who composed prelude no.15 in D flat
what is the nickname of prelude no.15 in D flat 
the raindrop prelude
the structure of prelude no.15 in D flat 
ternary form (ABA)A;accompanied by quavers in the bass, has an ABA structureB;melody in bass, quavers above, moved from major to minorA; same as A but shorter and with a Coda
rhythm in prelude no.15 in D flat
bar 4+23 sectuplets, bar 79 dectuplets- unusualrepeated quavers- (reason its called the raindrop prelude))begins with a dotted rhythm in section A 
metre of prelude no.15 in D flat 
common time  (4-4)
Tempo of prelude no.15 in D flat
legato, unhurried manner flexible tempo
melody of prelude no.15 in D flat 
starts in the left hand- very decorative section B moves to the bass - narrower range, longer notesmade up of mostly four and eight bar phrases 
tonality of prelude no.15 in D flat
modulates from the tonic major in section A  to the enharmonic tonic minor in section B. it returns to d flat major both A and B end with an imperfect cadence, prelude ends with a perfect cadence there is a dominant pedal throughout 
harmony in prelude no.15 in D flat
the harmony is diatonic sometimes it uses chromaticism 
texture of prelude no.15 in D flat 
apart from two monophonic bars near the end  the piece is homophonic
dynamics in prelude no.15 in D flat 
lots of crescendos and diminuendos wide range of dynamics no sudden contrast  section A - quieter than section B 
use of the piano in prelude no.15 in D flat 
uses middle and lower piano rangesconcentrates on pianos ability to ' sing'lots of sustaining pedal 
who composed the peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
when was  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces composed
the instrumentation in  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
requires a large orchestra of at least 90 players changes quickly- creating contrast in timbreinstruments played in the extremes of their rangesunusual effects- symbols played with cello bow
melody of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
made up of short fragmented motifs melodies are disjunct- uses octave displacement uses inversion and rhythmic augmentation
rhythm of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
complex and varied- change quickly 
tempo of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
the tempo is very quick
metre of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
changes between 2-4,3-4 and 4-4
tonality of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
harmony of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
chords and melodies build of hexachords dissonant harmony 
Texture of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
contrapuntal- sometimes homophonic and monophoniccomplex textures build up through intimation and inversion and canon 
dynamics in  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
sudden changes and extreme contrast 
structure of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
piece in free rondo form ( ABACA)
who composed somethings coming ?
when was  somethings coming composed ? 
what genre is  somethings coming from ? 
instrumentation in  somethings coming
for solo tenor accompanied by wind,brass,strings and percussion strings use harmonics and tremolo 
melody  in  somethings coming
melody is syllabic and based on three themes1. quiet syncopated opening 2, loud,strident theme in 2-43.lyrical, slow moving theme
rhythm in  somethings coming
lots of cross rhythms 
tempo of  somethings coming
fast tempo
metre of  somethings coming
changes between 2-4 and 3-4
harmony of  somethings coming
in D major, there are two sections in C majortonal and jazzy, frequent 7th chords and added notesfeeling of incompletion  
texture of somethings coming 
homophonic- three main ideas1. repeated riffs2. syncopated chordsfast um-cha accompaniment 
what style is electric counterpoint ( third movement) in 
who composed   electric counterpoint ( third movement)
Steve Reich
when was electric counterpoint ( third movement) composed 
instrumentation of   electric counterpoint ( third movement)  
for live guitars accompanied by seven guitars and two basseslive guitar is amplified  
structure in   electric counterpoint ( third movement)
three layers 1. syncopated quaver motif2.different syncopated quaver motif3.more sustained motif build around three chords
melody in   electric counterpoint ( third movement)
made up of a one bar motif, repeated to form an ostinatothere is a canonbuild up melody using addition
rhythm in electric counterpoint ( third movement)
little rhythmic variety- only repeated patterns and quaversfrequent syncopationuses metric displacement-sounds out of sync 
metre in electric counterpoint ( third movement)
3-2towards the end some parts changes to 12-8 others stay the same - polymetre
harmony in electric counterpoint ( third movement)
harmonic progressions aren't used - final chord made up of only two notes (B,E) - not a complete chorduses hexatonic scales 
tonality in electric counterpoint ( third movement)
largely in key of major - short section in E flat major
entirely diatonic  
dynamics in electric counterpoint ( third movement)
fairly constant throughout parts fade out gradually in places
tempo of   electric counterpoint ( third movement)
192 crotchets per minute - very fast 
when was All blues  composed 
who composed  All blues 
miles Davis
what type of band is on the album playing  All blues 
what is the front line 
consists of the instruments playing the main melody
what is the rhythm section 
the rhythm section is the section that provides the harmonic and rhythmic backing
what miles davis gave the ban before recording 
no score only :overall structure, basic chord sequence,main melodic idea, the scale 
structure in  All blues 
introduction- rhythmic sectionHead1- head melody, riffsolos-trumpet,alto sax, tenor sax, pianohead 2- same as head 1coda- solo for muted trumpet
melody in  All blues 
head melody simple- rising 6ths trumpet solo- short syncopated motifs alto sax solo- quick notes, wider range, virtuosictenor sax solo- fast scales, quick runs, very virtuosicpiano solo- calm,simple melody , parallel chords
harmony in All blues 
scale;g7,G7,G7,G7,Gm7,Gm7,G7,G7,D7,E flat/D7,F/G,F/G6a chord sequence is known as the changesall blues is G major BUT with a flattened seventh
tonality in  All blues 
Mixolydian Mode- modal jazz
metre in  All blues 
tempo in  All blues 
jazz waltz because 6-4 sounds like 3-4
rhythm in  All blues 
swung quavers and syncopation 
instrumental technique in   All blues 
snare drum played with wire brush at the startbass play pizzicato throughouttrumpet played with a mutepiano plays tremolo and comping 
who composed grace 
Jeff Buckley  
when was grace released 
instrumentation in grace  
accompanied by guitars,bass guitars, synthesizer,strings and drum kit  guitars use drop D tuning drums and guitar used throughout the song, synthesizer and strings are less prominent
texture in Grace 
strings and synthesizer used to vary the texture texture thickens towards the end of the song 
use of technology in grace 
modulation, distortion, flanging, overdubbing, extra vocal parts, EQ in the final verse 
structure in grace 
intro,verse,chorus,intro,verse,chorus,bridge,intro,verse, coda
tonality of Grace 
E minor, intro focuses on the chord of D
Harmony in Grace 
standard 1,4,5 chord progression- avoided chords are chromatic and in parallel motion very dissonant 
melody in Grace 
vocal part has improvisation and a wide range over 2 octavesvocal phrases falling - feeling of lots of glissandos 
word setting of grace 
syllabic - melismatic on the world love and fire
vocalization-falsettoword painting on ; cries,pain,leave,slow and drown
metre of grace 
rhythm of grace
syncopation-rhythmically freelots of cross rhythms
who composed ' why does my heart feel so bad'
when was  ' why does my heart feel so bad' released
key features of dance music
4-4 metreuse of electronic soundstrong beats looped sections and short repetitive phrases
samples of  ' why does my heart feel so bad'
based on two samples- a 1953 gospel choir recording(1) and an song called king Jesus will roll all burdens away.(2)1 used for verses2.the chorus
melody in  ' why does my heart feel so bad'
been manipulated - have vintage style - not cleaned up surface noisesamples looped  to create the melody- simple and repetitive  
structure of  ' why does my heart feel so bad'
based on verse chorus - looping creates this intro, verse, chorus,verse,silence(1bar)chorus,verse
texture in  ' why does my heart feel so bad'
build up as tracks are introducedpiano only,voice,drums+strings,bass,piano chordsafter breakdown texture thins piano and drums drop out 
metre of  ' why does my heart feel so bad'
tempo of  ' why does my heart feel so bad' 
rhythm of  ' why does my heart feel so bad'
varied to provide contrast 
use of technology in  ' why does my heart feel so bad' 
synthesizers,sampler,drum machine,sequencerpanning,electronic ghosting ,reverb,echoes,EQ
harmony in ' why does my heart feel so bad'
entirely diatonic - based on three simple chord progressions
tonality in  ' why does my heart feel so bad'
Am,Em,G,D- first sampleC,Am,C,Am then F,C,F,C - second sampleDorian mode on A
who composed the Skye waulking song 
when was Skye waulking song released
what language is  Skye waulking song in 
instrumentation in  Skye waulking song 
countermelody: violin, Wurlitzer piano, uilleann pipes and bouzouki bass line : bass guitar main melody is sung
chords on synthesizer and accordion 
texture of  Skye waulking song 
layered texture opens with cluster chords 
structure of  Skye waulking song 
call, response pattern:phrase D,refrain B,phrase D,refrain Eintro,verse1,verse2, instrumental break, coda 
melody of  Skye waulking song 
pentatonicuses a low register- in vocal tenor clef syllabic
rhythm of  Skye waulking song 
frequent syncopationat the start there are cross rhythms then there is clear emphasis on the 12-8 beat
metre of  Skye waulking song 
harmony in  Skye waulking song 
G major and entirely diatonicthree main chords- G ,Em,Cmodal feel
who performs yiri
what country do koko come from
Burkina Faso
instrumentation in yiri
balafon,djembe(drum), talking drum also vocals are used
structure in yiri
intro- short, balafon solo- play tremolomain section-drums play throughout, alternates between balafon solo and choruses also there is a vocal solo( call and response between soloist and choir)Coda-short phrase for balafonx5 - bell sounds to mark the end 
melody in yiri
balafons play short patterns - fall from high to lowtend to emphasis G flat and D flat 
harmony in yiri
in the key of G flat major. most of the music is hexatonic 
rhythm in yiri
lots of syncopation and cross rhythmsvocalists use tripletsdrums play rhythmical ostinatos 
metre in yiri
tempo of yiri
free tempo with a steady pulse
texture in yiri
layered texture but there is a monophonic intro, and occasional heterophonic  texture 
dynamics in yiri
there is little dynamic variation