Microbiology - Quiz# 6 Chapters: 16, 17 & 18

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Microbiology - Quiz# 6 Chapters: 16, 17 & 18

Microbiology - Quiz#

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lack of resistance to a disease
ability to ward off a disease
innate immunity
defense against any pathogen
adaptive immunity
immunity resistance to a specific pathogen
physical host defense factors of skin
epidermis (tightly packed cells with kerotine - protective protein)
physical host defense factors of mucous membrane
ciliary escalator; microbes trapped in mucous transported away from lungs
physical host defense factors of lacrimal apparatus
washes eye
physical host defense factors of saliva, urine, vaginal secretions
washes microbes off
host chemical defense factors of fungistatic
fatty acid in sebum
host chemical defense factors of lysozyme
antibacterial enzyme in: sweat, tears, saliva, and tissue fluids
host chemical defense factors of gastric juice and skin
it has a low pH
host chemical defense factors of transferrins
bind to iron that impedes bacterial survival
host chemical defense factors of normal micorbiota
compete with pathogens
differential white cell count
percentage of each type of white cell in a sample of 100 WBC's
WBC: neutophils, basophils, eosinophils, dendritic cells, monocytes, lymphocytes
produce histamines
toxic to paracites also responsible for allergies
dendritic cells
initiates adaptive immune response
phagocytic as a mature macrophage
involved in specific immunity
redness pain heat swelling (edema)
Acute phase proteins are activated
proteins like complement (pokes holes), cytokines and kinins which attract WBC's
histamine causes blood vessels to dialate leaking WBC making redness and swelling
When fever present
G- endotoxin causes phagocytes to release IL-1, hypothalamus releases prostaglandins to reset hypothalamus to higher temp. Bodys temp increases. When IL-1 eliminated, temp falls (crisis).
fever advantages
too warm for some pathogens, innactivates some toxins, enhances immune responsemakes you feel ill and want to rest
disadvantages to fever
tachycardia, acidosis, dehydration
The compliment system
serum proteins activated in a cascade
opsonization or immune adherence
cell coated with proteins cause enhanced phagocytosis (adds handles)
membrane attack complex forms
cytolysis (process of making the hole) of bacterial cells
compliment proteins attract
Alpha & Beta IFNs (interferons) cause
cells to produce antiviral proteins that inhibit viral replication
Innate immunity defense against
any pathogen
adaptive immunity is
specific antibody and lymphocytes to an antigen developed over a lifetime
lymphatic system returns
tissue fluid to cirrculation which is the "home" for the immune system
Antigen is
a substance that causes the body to produce specific antibodies (for in fluid) or sensitized T cells ( for inside the cell).
Antibody is
protiens made in response to an antigen, can combine with the Ag
serum proteins that bind to Ab in an Ag-Ab reaction; causes cell lysis
hummoral immuntiy involves
antibodies (produced by B cells) that attack microbes in body fluids
B cells recognizes Ag by
Ab on their surfaces (*only B cells make Ab)
Cell-mediated immunity involves
T cell that attack microbes within body cells: kills the entire infected host cell
the study of reactions between Ab and Ag
serum(blood) protein
aka Ab
IgG Ab
most common, enhances phagocytosis, neutralizes toxins and viruses
IgM Ab
agglutinates microbes, 1st Ab produced in response to an infection
IgA Ab
mucosal protection
IgD Ab
innate immune response
IgE Ab
allergic reactions, lysis of parasitic worms
Ag presenting cells
macrophage pathogen, places it on surface (bound by MHC - "self" marker protein) and presents it as a self marker
Humoral response
activation of B cells
antibody diversity
countless random variations of Ab
clonal selection
Ag binds to one of the countless random variations of Ab
clonal expansion
causes a specific B cell to multiply
plasma cells is an Ab that secrets
B clones to fight current infection
memory cells are
B clones stored in lymph tissue for future infections
T-independant Ag
do NOT require a T helper cell to activate B cells, polysaccharide weak response 
T-dependant Ag
DO require T helper cells to activate B cells, protein strong response
Result of Ag-Ab binding - neutralization of toxin
prevents binding to cell receptors, encourages phagocytosis
Result of Ag-Ab binding - opsonization (coating) of bacteria
prevents binding to tissues, encourages phagocytosis
Result of Ag-Ab binding - agglutination / immune complex formation
IgM clumps bacteria, prevents spread, encourages phagocytosis
T-helper cells are activated to reproduce when
presented Ag, also activated TH memory cells, activates B-cells
cytotoxic T cells activated to produce when
presented antigen by a microphage
natural killer
cells destroy other cells
a way for immune system cells to communicate
immunologic memory
B and T memory cells stored in lymph tissues
naturally acquired ACTIVE immunity
resulting from infection
naturally acquired PASSIVE immunity
transplacental or via colostrum
artificially acquired ACTIVE immunity
injection of antigens (vaccination)
artificially acquired PASSIVE immuntiy
injection of antibodies
substance containing Ag
inactivated whole agent
killed organisms
attenuated whole agent
live, weakend microbes - most closely mimics actual infection
contains antigenic fragments
Ag produced by engineered bacteria
subunit recombinant vaccines safest
no whole microbes
conjugated vaccine
stronger immune response to polysaccharide Ag in children
inactive form of toxin
monoclonal antibodies (MABS)
single type of purified Ab, mass produced, fused WBC/cancer cells, used to detect almost any kind of chemical
immunocological testing
direct test
uses Ab to detect Ag in patients sample
indirect test
uses Ag to detect Ab in patients serum
precipitation reaction
involve soluble Ag with Ab. agglutinated complex visible precipitates in a + test
agglutination reaction
invole participate Ag and Ab (blood type testing)
if Ab titer increases
body is fighting an infection
Ab titer
concentration of Ab
viral hemagglutination
involvees agglutination of RBC
viral hemagglutination inhibtion
Ab bind to virus preventing hemagglutination, reveals presence of Ab
tagged antibody assay
detects low concentration of Ag/Ab using tag
flourescent Ab techniques
attach flourescent dye to Ab, specific Ag "glow" under UV light
enzymethat causes media to change color attached to Ab, color change = positive test