Meteorology FINAL!!!

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Meteorology FINAL!!!


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Air may best be described as:
a mixture
Dust in the atmosphere is associated with which of the following:
all of the above
With an increase in altitude, air pressure:
decreases at a decreasing rate
This atmospheric component absorbs damaging ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
none of these
Weather affects:
all of these
This variable atmospheric component can exist in all three states of matter on Earth.
Which of the following is the most important atmospheric component with regard to the Earth's climate?
water vapor
The "weather sphere" is in the...
Atmospheric pressure is caused by...
the weight of the air above
Water vapor represents what fraction of the air near the Earth's surface?
less than 4%
The basic elements of weather and climate include all of the following, except:
the chemical composure of the air
The primary difference between the concepts of weather and climate is the...
time period involved
The troposphere is most likely to be thickest...
over the equator
This country has the greatest variety of weather in the world:
United States
The lowest temperatures in the atmosphere exist in the...
Which one of the following is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
On the average, for every 1 km increase in altitude in the troposphere the air temperaute...
drops about 6.5degreeC
The nornal lapse rate applies to the...
Clouds play an important role in the Earth's energy budget because they...
reflect solar energy
On the average, how much of the Sun's energy that is intercepted by the Earth system is reflected to space?
The length of daylight gets progressively longer going south from the equator on...
June 21
All radiation emitted by the Earth and its atmosphere is in the category of...
Most of the solar energy absorbed by the planet Earth and its atmosphere is absorbed by...
the Earth's surface
The North Pole has a higher noon Sun angle than New York City (40degreeN lat) on...
none of these
During natural processes, heat transfer is always from...
warmer to cooler substances
Suppose the albedo of a planet is measured to be 40%. This means that...
40% of the Sun's energy is reflected
At 45degreeS latitude, the angle of the noon Sun is lowest and the length of daylight is shortest on...
June 21
Which of the following correctly describes the equinoxes?
days and nights are equal in length in all parts of the world
_________ is a mechanism of heat transfer.
all of these
The spring equinox in the Northern Hemisphere starts on...
March 21
Why do atmospheric temperatures decrease with height in the troposphere?
atmosphere is heated by the ground
Earth is closest to the Sun during...
No. Hemisphere winter
Earth's perihelion...
would not exist if the Earth's orbit were circular
The atmosphere is heated primarily by...
absorption of Earth radiation
Marquette, MI is at 47degree N latitude. What is the angle of the Sun's noon rays on Dec. 22?
19 1/2degree
Low Sun angels result in reduced solar energy because...
both a) and c)
If an imbalance occurs between incoming and outgoing energy at the Earth's surface...
temperatures either increase or decrease
The primary cause of Earth's seasons is...
inclination of Earth's rotation axis
Locations on Earth which have the largest annual temperature change from summer to winte are...
at high altitudes
A poleward moving (northward moving in the Northern Hemisphere) ocean current is...
a warm current
Which of the following statements is true?
none of these is true
A location on a windward coast refers to a place where the prevailing wind is...
toward the land
A location along a seacoast will probably have summer temperatures that are ______, compared to an inland location.
In the course of an average 24-hour period, the ocean will warm...
less than 1degreeC
The annual range of temperature may be described as...
the difference between the average temperature of the warmest and coldest months
If water freezes at a temperature of 273degreeK, it must boil at what temperature?
The annual temperature range at most latitudes in the southern hemisphere is much smaller than in the northern hmisphere. Why?
There is more area covered by water in the southern hemisphere
On a particular day a place accumulates 15 heating degree days. What was the daily mean temperature on that day?
none of the above
The most important cause of temperature variations is...
differences in receipt of solar radiation
City A is in the So. Hem. and City B is in the No. Hem. Both cities reflect the characteristics of the hemispheres they are located. Which city should have the warmer winter temperature?
City A
Referring to the two cities mentioned in the previous question, which city should have the higher annual temperature range?
City B
The specific heat of water is high. What does this mean?
water must gain or lose large amounts of energy when its temperature changes
The annual range of temperature may be described as the difference between the...
average temperature of the coldest and warmest month
The percent reduction in solar radiation reaching the surface in urban areas is greatest...
at high latitudes in the winter
If the maximum temperature for a particular day is 26degreeC and the minimum is 14degreeC, the daily mean would be...
When comparing a place at the bottom of a mountain and a place 2500 meters up the mountainside, which of the following statements is correct?
both of the above statements are correct
The effect of urban heat production on the urban heat island is greatest in the...
A place located along a windward coast...
will probably have cooler summer temperatures than an inland place at the same latitude
Widely spaced isotherms indicate...
a gradual temperature change rate
Adiabatic processes are only important for air...
which is rising or sinking
The change of state from gas to liquid is called...
The temperature of rising air parcels ______ as they move upward.
may either increase or decrease
The relative humidity is 40% and the mixing ratio at saturation is 20 grams per kilogram. What's the actual mixing ratio?
8 gm/kg
The capacity of the air to hold water vapor...
increases with an increase in temperature
The gas most responsible for atmospheric processes is...
water vapor
The vertical motions that occur when the air is unstable are termed...
Sinking or subsiding air cannot form clouds due to the...
warming temperatures
The atmosphere is most unstable when the temperature of the air ______ with height.
drops rapidly
As the temperature of air is reduced to its dewpoint, which of these is most likely to occur?
During a clear, relatively calm day, the relative humidity will tend to _______ from sunrise to early afternoon.
Which of the following would not be associated with stable atmospheric conditions?
afternoon thundershowers
When using a psychrometer, if the two temperatures read nearly the same you can conclude that...
the air has a high relative humidity
Relative humidity depends on the water vapor present in the air and the...
The actual amount of water vapor in the air is greatest for which of the following combinatons of temperature and relative humidity?
20degreeC, 100%
________ occurs when a solid turns directly to a gas without passing through the liquid phase.
We're likely to have our highest relative humidity...
about sunrise
The dew point is the temperature at which...
water vapor condenses to a liquid
Deserts such as the Great Basin, Gobi, and Takla Makan are examples of...
rain shadow deserts
A convergence of winds near the surface is associated with cloud production because it...
forces the air to rise
Which type of cloud is most likely to form a halo around the Sun or Moon?
This cloud sometimes produces mare's tails...
The temperature inside a cloud would therefore be...
about equal to the dew point
If ice crystals form in this cloud, they will experience the cloud environment as having a relative humidity of...
more than 100%
The ______ cloud may have an "anvil head".
When warm moist air moves over a cold surface, ________ fog may result.
A cumulus cloud is recognized mainly by its...
obvious vertical dimension
The necessary conditions for hail formation include strong upward vertical motion and...
large number of supercooled droplets
Clouds that form in air that is very stable will usually be...
Of the following cloud types, which is most likely to produce the most rain?
A wintertime form of precipitation that consists of small ice particles is called...
none of these
The most common way for air to be cooled in order that a cloud may form is by...
rising and expanding
Freezing rain (ice storm) or sleet occurs when...
upper air is warm and surface air is cold
Condensation nuclei may be formed from...
all of the above
Why are high altitude clouds always so thin?
very little water vapor is present
Clouds which have extensive vertical dimensions are...
This fog is found in valleys at night and in the early morning...
radiation fog
Hail is most commonly associated with...
cumulonimbus clouds
Which of these is a mid-level cloud?
none of these
One aspect of the _______ theory relies on the fact that different-sized cloud droplets fall at different speeds.
collision-coalescence process
The _______ may result in snow or rain.
Bergeon process