Medical Terminology - Endocrinology

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Medical Terminology - Endocrinology

Endocrinology, The Study Of Endocrine Glands.

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pituatary gland (hypophysis)
located at the base of the brain, small pea-shaped gland attached to the hypothalamus.  Referred to as the master gland of the endocrine system. Produces Adrenocorticotropic, gonadotropic, growth, thyroid-stimulating, Prolactin, Antidiuretic, and Oxytocin hormones.
thyroid gland
H-shaped organ comprising two lobes that lie on either side of the trachea, connected by a strip of tissue called isthmus.  Largest gland of the endocrine system, positioned just below the larynx.  Produces three hormones.  Produces triiodothyronine, thyroxing, and calcitonin hormones.
parathyroid glands
four glands:  a superior pair and an inferior pair, which are attached to each lateral thyroid lobe.  Produces parathormone hormone.
adrenal glands (suprarenal)
attached to the upper portion of each kidney.  Suprarenal refers to the location (above=supra).  Each is structurally and functionally differentiated into an outer region, the adrenal cortex, and an inner region, the adrenal medulla. Produces sex, mineralocorticoids, and glucocorticoids hormones.
pancreas (islets of Langerhans)
located posterior to the stomach, between the spleen and duodenum.  Functions as endo and exocrine gland.  Produce two hormones: glucagon and insulin.
almond shaped glands located in the pelvic cavity of a female, one on each side of the uterus.  Produce the ovum.
two oval glands in a  male that lie in the scrotum.  Produce spermatozoa.
thymus gland
positioned in front of the aorta and behing the sternum. It comprises lymphatic tissue and serves as the site of production of a hormone called thymosin.
adren/o, adren/o/pathy
adrenal glands,  any disease of the adrenal glands.
adrenal/o,  adrenal/ectomy
adrenal glands,  surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands.
gluc/o, gluc/o/genesis
sugar, sweetness,  formation of glucose.
glyc/o,  glyc/ur/esis
sugar, sweetness.  urinary excretion of glucose.
pancreat/o,  pancreat/oma
pancreas,  pancreatic tumor.
thyr/o,  thyr/o/megaly
thyroid gland, enlargement of the thyroid gland.
thyroid/o,  thyroid/ectomy
thyroid gland, surgical removal of the thyroid gland.
diabetes mellitus (DM)
chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism that is primarily a result of a deficiency or complete lack of insulin secretion by the beta cells of the pancreas or of defects of the insulin receptors of cells.  Results in hyperglycemia (high glucose in the blood).
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), type 1
occurs mostly in children and adolescents (juvenile onset) and may be associated with a genetic predisposition to the disorder.
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), type 2
The onset of NIDDM is usually later in life (maturity onset).  It is different from type 1, and its risk factors include a family history of diabetes and obesity.  Although insulin is produced, insulin cannot exert its effects on cells because of the body's insensitivity to insulin.
Excessive amount of calcium in the blood.
Abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood, as in diabetes.
Excessive amount of potassium in the blood.
a condition characterized by overactivity of the thyroid gland.
Deficiency of glucose in the blood, usually caused by administration of too much insulin, excessive secretion of insulin by islet cells in the pancreas, Addision disease, or dietary deficiency.
a decreased concentration of sodium in the blood.
undersecretion of the thyroid gland, which results in a lowered metabolism with obesity, dry skin, slow pulse, sluggishness, and goiter.
the abnormal accumulation of ketones in the body as a result of excessive breakdown of fats caused by a deficiency or inadequate intake of carbohydrates.  Fatty acids are metabolized instead, and the end products, ketones, begin to accumulate.
acidosis accompanied by an accumulation of ketones in the body, resulting from extensive breakdown of fats due to faulty carbohydrate metabolism.
an inflammatory condition of the pancreas that may be acute or chronic.
enlargement of the thyroid gland.  Goiter.
excision of a gland.
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
non-insuin-dependent diabetes mellitus