Medical Terminology - Chapter 12

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Medical Terminology - Chapter 12

Skin: The Int Egumenta

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Integumentary system
made up of the skin and its related structures, performs important functions in maintaining the health of the body
sebaceous glands
secrete sebum (oil) that lubricates the skin and discourages the growth of bacteria on the skin
sweat glands
help regulate body temperature and water content by secreting sweat
cutaneous cutane -ous
relating to the skin skin pertaining to
the outermost layer of the skin
epithelial tissues
form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body
squamous epithelial tissue
forms the upper layer of the epidermis squamous means scale-like
fibrous, water-repellent protein soft keratin is a primary component of epidermis hard keratin is found in the hair & nails
cells that produce and contain a dark brown to black pigment called melanin
dermis or corium
thick layer of living tissue directly below the epidermis
means glue, is a tough, yet flexible, fibrous protein material found in the skin and in the bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments
is released in response to an injury, is an anticoagulant angicoagulant prevents blood clotting
lipocytes or (fat cells) lip/o -cytes
predominant in the subcutaneous layer where they manufacture and store large quantities of fat lip/o = fat; -cytes = cells
sebaceous glands
located in the dermis layer of the skin and are closely associated with hair follicles
the production and excretion of sweat
arrector pili
tiny muscle fibers attached to the hair follicles that cause the hair to stand erect
unguis (commonly known as a fingernail or toenail)
the keratin plate protecting the dorsal surface of the last bone in each finger and toe (plural = ungues)
a pale half-moon-shaped region at every nail root that is generally most easily seen in the thumbnail   (plural = lunulae)
surgical repair
acne vulgaris (acne)
a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by pustular eruptions of the skin caused by an overproduction of sebum
a noninfected lesion formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a hair follicle
dermo/o, dermat/o
hairy, rough
horny, hard, cornea
fat, lipid
black, dark
fingernail or toenail
louse or lice
nettle, rash, hives
actinic keratosis
a precancerous skin groth that occurs on sun-damaged skin; often looks like a red scaly patch and feels like sandpaper
albinism   albin; -ism
a genetic condition characterized by a deficiency or the absence of pigment in the skin, hair, & irises of the eyes                            white; condition
alopecia (baldness)   alopec;  -ia
the partial of complete loss of hair, most commonly on the scalp alopec = baldness;  -ia = condition
blepharoplasty (lid lift)   blephar/o; -plasty
the surgical reduction of the upper and lower eyelids by removing excess fat, skin, & muscle eyelid; surgical repair
a large blister that is usually more than 0.5 cm in diameter
a cluster of connected furuncles (boils)
an acute, rapidly spreading infection within the connective tissues that is characterized by malaise, swelling, warmth, & red streaks
chloasma (melasma or mask of pregnancy)
a pigmentation disorder characterized by brownish spots on the face
a normal scar resulting from the healing of a wound
the removal of dirt, foreign objects, damaged tissue, and cellular debris from a wound to prevent infection and to promote healing
dermatitis   dermat; -itis
an inflammation of the skin   skin; inflammation
diaphoresis   dia-; phor; -esis
profuse sweating; a normal condition brought on by heat or exertion through or complete; movement; abnorm condition
dysplastic nevi
atypical moles that can develop into skin cancer
ecchymosis (bruise)   ecchym; -osis
a large, irregular area of purplish discoloration due to bleeding under the skin pouring out of juice; abnormal condition
persistent or recurring dermatitis that is usually characterized by redness, itching, & dryness, with possible blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding
erythema   erythem; -a
redness of the skin due to capillary dilation   flushed; noun ending
erythroderma   erythr/o; -derma
is abnormal redness of the entire skin surface   red; skin
exfoliative dermatitis
a condition in which there is widespread scaling of the skin, often with pruritus, erythroderma, and hair loss
folliculitis follicul -itis
an inflammation of the hair follicles hair follicul inflammation
furuncles (boils)
large, tender, swollen areas caused by a staphylococcal infection around hair follicles or sebaceous glands
granuloma   granul; -oma
a general term used to describe small, knot-like swellings of granulation tissue in the epidermis granular; tumor
hematoma   hemat; -oma
usually caused by an injury, is a swelling of clotted blood trapped in the tissues blood; tumor
hirsutism   hirsut
the presence of excessive body and facial hair in women, usually occurring in a male pattern hairy
ichthyosis   ichthy; -osis
a group of hereditary disorders characterized by dry, thickened, and scaly skin dry or scaly; abnormal condition
a highly contagious bacterial skin infection that commonly occurs in children; characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted & rupture
keloid   kel; -oid
an abnormally raised or thickened scar that expands beyond the boundaries of the incision growth or tumor; resembling
keratosis   kerat; -osis
any skin growth, such as a wart or a callus, in which there is overgrowth and thicking of the skin hard or horny; abnormal conditioning
koilonychia (spoon nail)   koil
a malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave or scooped out like the bowl of a spoon; koil = hollow or concave
lipedema (painful fat syndrome)   lip; -edema
a chronic abnormal condition that is characterized by the accumulation of fat and fluid in the tissues just under the skin of the hips & legs.     fat; swelling
lipoma   lip; -oma
a benign, slow-growing fatty tumor located between the skin and the muscle layer fatty; tumor
lupus erythematosus (lupus)
a autoimmune disorder characterized by a red, scaly rash on the face and upper trunk; also attacks the connective tissue in other systems, esp. joints
macule (macula)
a discolored, flat spot that is less than 1 cm in diameter freckle or flat moles are examples
malignant melanoma (melanoma)   melan; -oma
a type of skin cancer that occurs in the melanocytes   black; tumor
miliaria (also known as heat rash and prickly heat)
an intensely itchy rash caused by blockage of the sweat glands by bacteria and dead cells caution: don't confuse with malaria
necrotizing fasciitis   necrotizing; fasciitis
a severe infection caused by Group A strep bacteria (known as flesh-eating bacteria) tissue death; inflammation of fascia
onychocryptosis (ingrown toenail)   onych/o; crypt; -osis
the edges of a toenail, usually on the big toe, curve inward and cut into the skin fingernail/toenail; hidden; abnormal condition
onychomycosis   onych/o; myc; -osis
a fungal infection of the nail   fingernail or toenail; fungus; abnormal condition
papilloma   papill; -oma
a benign, superficial wart-like growth on the epithelial tissue or elsewhere in the body, such as in the bladder.     resembling a nipple; tumor      
a small, raised red lesion that is less than 0.5 cm in diameter and does not contain pus small pimples and insect bites are types of papules
paronychia   par-; onych; -ia
an acute or chronic infection of the skin fold around a nail near; fingernail or toenail; condition
pediculosis   pedicul; -osis
an infestation with lice   lice; abnormal condition
are very small, pinpoint hemorrhages that are less than 2 mm in diameter, sometimes result from high fevers
pruritus (itching)   prurit; -us
is associated with most form of dermatitis   itching; singular noun ending
a common skin disorder characterized by flare-ups in which red papules covered with silvery scales occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, back or buttocks
purpura   purpur; -a
the appearance of multiple purple discolorations on the skin caused by bleeding underneath the skin purple; a noun ending
producing or containing pus
rhytidectomy (facelift)   rhytid; -ectomy
the surgical removal of excess skin and fat around the face to eliminate wrinkles
rosacea (adult acne)
tiny red pimples and broken blood vessels; usually develops in people with fair skin, 30 - 60 yrs old
a skin infection caused by an infestation with the itch mite, which causes small, itchy bumps and blisters due to tiny mites that burrow into skin
scleroderma   scler/o; -derma
an autoimmune disorder in which the connective tissues become thickened and hardened, causing skin to become hard & swollen.   hard; skin
an overactivity of the sebaceous glands that results in the production of an excessive amount of sebum
squamous cell carcinoma
originates as a malignant tumor of the scaly squamous cells of the epithelium, it can quickly spread to other body systems
strawberry hemangioma   hem; angi/o; -oma
a soft, raised, dark-reddish-purple birthmark benign tumor made of newly formed blood vessels blood; blood or lymph vessels; tumor
tinea (ringworm)
a fungal infection that can grow on the skin, hair, or nails
urticaria (hives)   urtic; -aria
are itchy wheals caused by an allergic reaction   rash; connected with
verrucae (warts)
are small, hard skin lesions cause dby the human papilloma virus
a skin condition resulting from the destruction of the melanocytes due to unknown causes; characterized by irregular patches of white skin
wheal (welt)
a small bump that itches can appear as a symptom of an allergic reaction
xeroderma (xerosis   xer/o; -derma
excessively dry skin   dry; skin