Marriage And Family

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Marriage And Family

Marriage And Family Counseling

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Systems-oriented clinicians are most interested in 
the process of what they are observing in the couple's interaction than in the content of the interaction, the what, how, and when things are occurring, not the why things are occurring
Dyads and triads refer to
relationship that becomes the center of therapeutic attention and the target of intervention strategies
From a family systems perspective, the appearance of symptoms in a family member represents the manifestation of 
an identified patient, scapegoating
The "identified patient" is the person in the family who
has the presenting symptom, the person who seeks treatment or for whom treatment is sought
Metarules are
a family's unstated rules regarding how to interpret or, if necessary, to change its rules
Most family rules are
unspoken, covert
A family's metarules refer to 
the boundaries?
Homeostasis refers to 
a dynamic state of balance or equilibrium in a system, or a tendency in a system toward achieving and maintaining such a state in an effort to ensure a stable environment, maintain balance and resist change
The elements of a system are delineated by its 
boundaries and whether or not they are permeable
A schizoohrenogenic mother is one who
is cold, domineering, tends to produce or develop a son with schizophrenia
The double-bind concept was first introduced to account for the development of
A double-bind situation calls for 
a superior and inferior person, three injunctions 1. don't do that or you will be punished (concrete)2. a gesture, frown, pull away stiffening3. parent demands a response but forbids the child to comment on the contradiction (escape is forbidden)
Which of the following models of family interaction is based largely on the psychoanalytic model
Object relations theory
Object relations theory is a 
subject/subject dyad?
Object relations evolved from the study of 
marital conflicts with Framo and splitting with Fairbairn, relationship between mother and child
Object relations theorists believe the infant's need for what influences the development of the self?
attachment to the mother
Object relations family therapy emphasizes the basic human need for 
secure attachment and love, especially from the mother
Common terms used by experiential family therapists include all but one of the following. Which term does not fit with the others?
family sculpting, emotionally focused couple therapy, co-therapy, therapist's use of self, therapeutic goals and process
Generally speaking, experiential therapists
deal with the present rather than uncovering the past, replace preplanned therapeutic techniques with the spontaneity of the therapist, emphasize emotional experience and affectively engage families, therapist's use of self
Emotional therapists are especially critical of
emotion experience over rational thought and intellectualization, rigid role structures
For symbolic-experiential therapists, the focus of therapy is 
address both individual and family relational patterns in the process of therapy, therapist helps the family dislodge rigid and repetitive ways of interacting by substituting more spontaneous and flexible ways of accepting and dealing with their impulses
Transgenerational approaches are
offer a psychoanalytically influenced, historically perspective to current family living problems by attending specifically to family relation patterns over decades
The "undifferentiated family ego mass" refers to 
Murray Bowen's term for an intense, symbolic nuclear family relationship, an individual sense of self fails to develop in members because of the existing fusion or emotional "stuck-togetherness" 
In Bowen's Differentiation of Self Scale, people at the low end tend to live lives of 
guided by their emotions, thinking is submerged, emotionally fused to others
The higher the degree of family fusion, the more likely
to function poorly and become dysfunctional
Bowen believed that, generally speaking, people choose mates with _______ levels of differentiation than themselves
Emotional cut-off according to Bowen is 
a flight of extreme emotional distancing in order to break emotional ties
A major technique utilized by Bowenian therapists involves
a genogram
Bowen's work with families tended to be
more focused on the parents
Which of the following statements would likely be made by a structural family therapist?
they pay special attention to family transactional patterns because these offer clues to the family structure, boundaries, structural patterns, family subsystems, challenging a family's current patterns, spacial and organizational patterns
Structural therapists emphasize
transaction/interactional patterns, clearly defined boundaries, current structures, identified patient's symptoms are best understood as rooted in the context of family transaction patterns and the therapist has to work to change these structures in which the symptom is embedded
A primary therapeutic goal for structuralists is
action leads to insight and understanding which leads to new structural patterns, challenges a family's pattern of interaction and looks beyond the symptoms of the identified patient, therapist reframes the identified patient into a larger focus
Which of the following is not a characteristic of a psychosomatic family?
a child has a manifested physical ailment, enmeshment is common, subsystems function poorly, boundaries between family members are too diffuse to allow for individuals autonomy, over-protective
One objective of structural interventions is for the psychosomatic family to achieve
clear boundaries, learn to negotiate desired changes, and deal more directly with hidden, underlying conflict
Some feminists are critical of Minuchin's emphasis on family hierarchies because they believe
his views are outmoded, rigid, and sexist
In disengaged families, boundaries are 
In an enmeshed family
boundaries are diffused
Members of enmeshed families run the risk of over-emphasizing 
roles/subsystems are easily crossed, parents are too accessible that children don't learn independence and parents hover and invade privacy, adults and children exchange roles easily, separation from family is seen as betrayal, enmeshed families are over-involved and over-connectted
Diffused boundaries are 
excessively blurred and indistinct and thus easily intruded upon by other family members
Members of disengaged families run the risk of over-emphasizing
independence, functioning separately and autonomously with little sense of family loyalty, members lack ability to request help or support from others
Structural Family Therapy is 
a therapeutic approach in which the therapist develops a specific plan or strategy and designs interventions aimed at solving the presenting problem, the model recognizes the influence of social factors in family functioning and in working within the community's larger system
Labeling an anoretic's refusal to eat as "stubborn" rather than "sick" is an example of 
One tactic employed by Minuchin in treating anoretics is to 
provoke a crisis, changing the faulty family organization that the child's anorexia is embedded in
Structuralists believe the anoretic symptom is embedded in 
faulty family organization, dysfunctional rules
Structuralists view anorexia nervosa as
a response to the family's dysfunction, not the adolescent's defiant behavior
Which of the following would not be considered a community theorist
Gregory Bateson, Don Jackson, Jay Haley, John Weakland, and Paul Watzlawick
Quarreling couples who feel justified in responding to what each perceives as an attack from the other are each imposing his or her own ________ on their interactions
One of the following is not a concept used by the communication theorists. Which one?
1.All behavior is communication at some level2. Communication may occur simultaneously at many levels3. Every communication has a content (repost) and a relationship (command) aspect4. Relationships are defined by command messages5. Relationships may be described as symmetrical or complementary6. Symmetrical relationships run the risk of becoming competitive7. Complementary communication inevitably involves one person who assumes a superior position and another who assumes an inferior one8. Each person punctuates a sequence of events in which he or she is engaged in different ways9. Problems develop and are maintained within the context of redundant interactive patterns and recursive feedback loops
Relationships are defined by _________ messages
The person who receives a double-bind message
is inferior, has no escape, is unable to avoid the incongruity or to comment on the impossibility of meeting its requirements, resulting in confusion
Therapeutic double-binds
a variety of paradoxical techniques used to change entrenched family patterns, intended to force the client into a no-lose situation
"Prescribing the symptom" is a form of 
a therapeutic double bind, strategists try to produce a runaway system by urging or even coaching the client to engage in or practice his or her symptoms, at least for the present time
Relabeling is a form of 
therapeutic double bind, essentially changing the label attached to a person or problem from negative to positive
Haley believes every relationship contains within it an implicit struggle for
control of the definition of the relationship
Strategic therapists tend to be
What are the seven levels of Gottman's Sound Relationship House Theory
1. establish love maps2. shared fondness and admiration3. turn towards4. develop the positive perspective5. managing conflict6. making life dreams come true7. creating shared meaning