KIN 212 Ch 3

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•Motivation is the direction and intensity of effort. –Direction of effort refers to whether an individual seeks out, approaches, or is attracted to situations. –Intensity of effort refers to how much effort an individual puts forth in a situation. •Direction and intensity of effort are closely related.
Participant (personal) factors
Situational Factors 
Leader-coach style
Facility attractiveness
Team win-loss record
Motivation Guideline 1 
 Both situations and traits motivate people.
Motivation Guideline 2
 People have multiple motives for involvement. Understand why people participate in physical activity.
Motives for Involvement 
•People participate for more than one reason. •People may have competing motives for involvement. •People have both shared and unique motives. •Motives change over time. Motives differ across cultures
Major Motives for Sport Participants
•Improving skills •Having fun •Being with friends •Experiencing thrills and excitement •Achieving success •Developing fitness
Major Motives for Exercise Participants
Joining: Health factors, Weight loss, Fitness, Self-challenge, Feeling better

Continuing: Enjoyment, Liking instructor, Liking type of activity, Social factors
Motivation Guideline 3 
•Change the environment to enhance motivation.

–Provide both competitive and recreational opportunities. –Provide for multiple motives and opportunities. Adjust to individuals within groups
Motivation Guideline 4
•Leaders influence motivation directly and indirectly.
Motivation Guideline 5 
•Use behavior modification to change undesirable participant motives.
Developing a Realistic View of Motivation
•Motivation is a key variable in both learning and performance contexts.
•Physical and psychological factors beyond motivation influence behavior and must be considered.
•Some motivational factors are more easily influenced than others.
Achievement motivation 
•is a person’s orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in accomplishments (Gill, 2000).

•Achievement motivation: Self-comparison of achievement.
is a disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others (Martens, 1986).

•Competitiveness: Social evaluation or comparison.
Achievement Motivation Influences
•Choice of activities •Effort to pursue goals •Intensity of effort •Persistence in the face of failure
Need achievement theory
refers to an individual's desire for significant accomplishment, mastering of skills, control, or high standards.

Personal Facors( motive to achieve success and motive to avoid failure + Situational Factors ( probability of success and incentive value of success) =
Result Tendency (approach success or avoid failure) =
Emotional reactions )focus on pride of success or focus on shame of failure) =
Achievement behavior (seek out achievement situations, look for challanges, enhanced performance or avoid achievement situations, avoid risk, perform poorly)
Attribution Theory 
•Attributions: How people explain their successes and failures •Examples include the following: –Stability –Locus of causality –Locus of control
Attribition theory (Stability factors)
Psychological Result: Expectancy of future success
Stable- increased expectation of success
Unstable- Decreased expectation of success
Attribition theory (Causality factors) 
Psychological Result: Emotional Factors
Increased pride or shame 
Decreased pride or shame

Attribition theory (Control factors) 
Psychological Result: Emotional influences 
Increased motivation
Decreased motivation 
Achievement Goal Theory
•Outcome goal orientation (or competitive goal orientation): Comparing performance with and defeating others. •Task (mastery) goal orientation: Improving relative to one’s own past performances

Social goal orientation: Judging competence in terms of affiliation with the group and recognition of being liked by others. ( ex facebook)
Keys of Achievement Goal Theory
•Focus extra attention on task-oriented goals. •Foster mastery or task motivational climates.
Keys of Competence
Motivation Theory
•People are motivated to feel worthy or competent. •Feelings of competence and worth, as well as perceptions of control, determine motives.
What Achievement Motivation Says About High Achievers
•High motivational orientation to achieve success •Low motivation orientation to avoid failure •Focus on the pride of success

•Ascribe success to stable and internal factors within their control •Ascribe failure to unstable and external factors outside their control •Usually adopt task goals

•Perceived competence and control: Have high perceived competence and feel that achievement is within their control •Task choice: Seek out challenges, able competitors, and demanding tasks •Performance: Perform well in evaluative conditions
What Achievement Motivation Says About Low Achievers
•Low motivational orientation to achieve success •High motivational orientation to avoid failure •Focus on shame and worry that may result from failure

•Ascribe success to unstable and external factors outside their control •Ascribe failure to stable and internal factors within their control •Usually adopt outcome goals

•Perceived competence and control: Have low perceived competence and feel that achievement is outside their control •Task choice: Avoid challenges, seek out very difficult or very easy tasks or competitors •Performance: Perform poorly in evaluative conditions
Stages of Developing Achievement Motivation and Competitiveness
•Autonomous competence stage (self comparison) •Social comparison stage (social comparison) •Integrated (self- and social-comparison)