Kidney (Urinary System)

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Kidney (Urinary System)


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covering, rind
little ball
near to 
to pass urine
pertaining to the kidney
functions of urinary system
remove substances from bloodform urineregulate metabolic processescollect urine convey urine outside the body 
functions of kidney
regulate volume, composition, and pH of body fluidsremove wastes and excrete themcontrol rate of RBC production control blood pressure by secreting reninregulate absorption of Ca ions by activating Vit D
organs of urinary system
two kidneystwo uretersbladderurethra
kidney are located 
behind parietal peritoneum (retroperitoneal) against the deep muscles of back on either side of spinal column between the 12th thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebrae
overall function of kidney
regulate the volume, composition, pH of body fluids
specific function of the kidneys are to
remove nitrogenous and sulfur waste products regulate volume and composition of body fluidscontrol rate of RBC productionregulate blood pressure by secreting reninabsorption of calcium ions by activating vit D
renal arteries arise from
abdominal aorta
renal arteries carry from ____% to _____% of cardiac output at rest by several ____arteries
15 30interlobar
interlobar arteries pass between 
renal pyramids
when interlobar arteries reach the junction between the____and ____, they branch to form a series of ____
medullacortexincomplete arteries 
final branches of interlobular arteries are 
afferent arterioles
afferent arterioles lead to
venous blood is returned through 
a series of veins that generally correspond to arterial pathways and that join the renal vein, which joins the inferior vena cava
efferent arteriole is _______than afferent arteriole
smaller than
________is important in regulating the secretion of renin
juxtaglomerular apparatus
functional unit of kidney
each nephron consists of ______and _____
renal corpuscle renal tubule
renal corpuscle is ________unit of nephron
renal corpuscle consists of 
cluster of capillaries (gloemrulus)surrounding glomerular capsule
cluster of capillaries in renal corpuscle 
afferent arterioles give rise to 
glomerulus leads to 
efferent arterioles
first step in urine formation
filtration of renal corpuscle
glomerular capsule is an ______at the end of renal tubule and receives _____
expansionglomerular filtrate
renal tubule consists of 
two layers of squamous epithelial cells1. visceral layer2. outer parietal layer
visceral layer of renal tubule
covers glomerulus 
outer parietal layer of renal tubule
continuous with visceral layer and with wall of renal tubule 
renal tubule leads away from 
glomerular capsule and becomes very coiled, forming proximal convoluted tubule. 
renal tubule becomes
proximal convoluted tubule 
following convoluted tubule is 
nephron loop (loop of Henle)
after nephron loop of henle is 
distal convoluted tubule and ascending limb of tubule
distal convoluted tubule is ____and ______than proximal tubule and converges with other tubules in the renal cortex to become _______
shorter straighter collecting duct
____is formed by tightly packed epithelial cells in the region where tubule passes between afferent and efferent arterioles
macula densa 
juxtaglomerular cells
large vascular smooth muscle cells 
juxtaglomerular cells form _____along the cells of macula densa
juxtaglomerular apparatus 
juxtaglomerular apparatus is important in 
regulation of renin secretion 
immune reaction triggered by antigens of beta hemolytic streptococcus 
body reacts to beta hemolytic streptococcus antigens by 
forming antibodies that join with the antigens to form insoluble complex that block the glomerulus.white cells respond by increasing capillaries permeability and allowing WBC and RBC into the urine
most patients of glomerulonephritis
regain normal function some renal function fails and dialysis is required 
afferent arteriole is ______than efferent arteriole which causes increased ________to blood flow in efferent arteriole
larger resistance
increased resistance to blood flow in the efferent arteriole causes blood to 
back up into the glomerulus 
back up of blood in glomerulus results in
relatively higher pressure in the glomerulus capillaries than in nonglomerular capillaries