Intro To Sociology Basic Terms

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Intro To Sociology Basic Terms

Sociology Basics For My Intro To Sociology Course At College

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Sociology Definition?
systemic study of human society
Sociological Perspective Definition
understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
sociologcal imagination stuff?
"enables us to grasp the connection between history and biography"
C. Wright Mills 
"Sociological Imagination is a tool to study our world"-The point of Sociology is to understand the relationship between individuals and the society in which they live
Private Troubles
occur within the character of the individual and within the range of his immediate relations with others
Public Issues
Have to do with matters that transcend the local environments of the individual they have to do with the organization of many institutions and organizations, and the way that society is structured
Social Structure
the organization of society that shapes the individual social behavior, groups choices, opportunities, experiences, and social attitudes
the viewpoint that is possible to know for sure by subjection them to empirical testing and demonstrating the cause and effect at work
general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work
Karl Marx
-Engine of human history is class conflict--bourgeoisie vs proletariat"It's all about the economy"
Max Weber
-Capitalism was more likely to flourish in Protestant countries"social life is complex" 
Emile Durkheim
"It's all about the solidarity"how society holds together through dramatic changes in the division of labor-identified social integration, worked on suicide
Jane Addams
Founded Hull House (community center for poor)regarded as a social worker
W.E.B Dubois
-analyzed the social stratification among Philly's black population- worked on civil rights
Robert Park
Founded Chicago School- school for sociologists
Public Sociology
Sociology being used for the public good
society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together
Conflict Theory 
society is viewed as composed of groups that are competing for scarce resources
Symbolic Interactionism
symbols are the way we understand and view the world and communicate with one another
Empirical Evidence
derives its data by means of direct observation or experiment
Qualitative vs Quantitative Methods
Qualitative- not in numeric formQuantitative- in numeric form
Correlation vs Causation
Correlation- when one variable is studied next to another, an effect is likely to happenCausation- two variables directly affect each other
Participant Observation
When researcher participates in the research he is observing-The Humphrey's Research!!--about annoynmous gay bathroom sex--Good example of this, almost unethical because he didn't tell subjects
Material vs Non-Material Culture
Material-material objects that distinguish a group of peopleNon-Material- groups ways of thinking and doing
use your culture as a yardstick for judging other's cultures (often negatively)
Cultural Relativism
Not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
standards by which people define what is desireable
expectations or rules of behavior
Expressions of approval given to people for upholding norms or expressions of disapproval for violating them.
folkways-norms that are not strictly enforcedmores- norms that are taken seriously
Cultural Universals
value, norm, cultural trait that is found in every group
World within the larger world of the dominant culture
Process by which people learn the characteristics of their group
Agents of Socialization
Individuals or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life
Media (Agent of Soc.)
-one of the biggest socializing elements because of the most access to it-One way communication
Peers (Agent of Soc.)
-demand conformity-help resists other Agents of Socialization (parents+school)-end result can be to follow or break social norms
Religon (Agent of Soc.)
way of understanding world
Family (Agent of Soc.)
-first group with impact-may or may not have primary purpose of socializing but they always do it
Gender Socialization
-learning the gender map (blue for boys, pink for girls)- gender messages in mass media
Gender Roles
Boys do X and not Y, Girls do Y and not X 
Social Inequality
individuals in a society do not have equal social status, some things are given to one social class but not the other
Life Chances
the likelihood of individual outcomes based on social position and access to resources
the dominance or leadership of one social group or nation over others
the process of mentally and emotionally "re-training" a person so that he or she can operate in an environment other than that which he or she is accustomed to.
Looking Glass Self
a person's self grows out of society's interpersonal interactions and the perceptions of others
Generalized Other
a person has the common expectations that others have about actions and thoughts within a particular society
a recognizable social position that an individual occupies
Status set
all the positions you occupy
Master status
A status that stands out over all others
expected behaviors for a status you hold
Role Conflict
Occurs when two or more roles are partially or wholly incompatible
Ascribed Status
Status you are born into
Achieved Status
Status gained voluntarily
Social Construction
considers how social phenomena or objects of consciousness develop in social contexts
Dramaturgical Theory
Life is essentially a theatrical performance complete with roles/scripts/costumes/stage
Front Stage/Back Stage
Front Stage- place where you give performanceBack Stage- place to rest--let our hair down
Impression Management
people attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or event
Social Integration
movement of minority groups into the mainstream society (giving them all rights of the mainstream society)
Mechanical Solidarity
unity people feel when doing the same task
Organic Solidarity
interdependence that results from division of labor--specialization
Division of Labor
Splitting of groups tasks into specialties
Social Control
control exerted (actively or passively) by group action
Labeling Theory
the view that the labels people are given affect their own and others perception of them
Social Institutions
the organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs
Social Class
Weber- large group of people who are similar in terms of propert, power, prestige.Marx- either capitalist who owns means of production or workers who sell their labor
Social Status
the honor or prestige attached to one's position in society
Economy (Social Institution)
Organizes a society's production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
is a social institution 
Latent Function
unintended consequences of the social systemIn a School: patience, sharing, following instructions
Manifest Function
intended purpose of the social systemIn a School: reading, writing, math
Hidden Curriculum
values that aren't explicitly taught In a School: democracy, patriotism, justice