Intro To Oceanography Midterm 1

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Intro To Oceanography Midterm 1

Basic Oceanography Information

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Physical Resources
Result from the deposition, precipitation, or accumulation of useful substances in the ocean or seabed
Biological Resources
Living animals and plants collected for human use
Nonextractive Resource
Uses of the ocean in place--transportation of people and commodities by sea recreation and waste disposal.
Renewable Resources
Natrually replaced by the growth of marine organisms or by other natural physical processes
Nonrenewable Physical Resources
-Most physical resources are mineral deposits (from non living processes) I.E. Petroleum and Natural gas, mostly remnants of once-living organisms.
(from Freshwater) Heat water, condense steam, Salt remains
Reverse Osmosis
Water forced through a semi-permeable membrane
Why is it difficult to study the ocean? Why has the ocean remained largely unexplored?
-Extreme pressure/access -Extreme tempreture -Size -Movement (life) -Water Movements -Funding -Political/Social Priority -Take it for granted -Saftey concerns/fire
Direct Measurements
Length/Weight using a ruler
Proxy Measurements
The agency, function, or office of a deputy who acts as a subsite for another. Comparing it to something else i.e. the length of a tree compared to a man.
1st way to measure current. Fixed point.
2nd way to measure current. I.E. rubber duckies see where they go (satellite attached to them).
North/South Position
East/West Position
Euphoric Zone
Enough light for photosynthesis. 1% light. 1m-100m
-Photic Zone
Light zone (top layer of light in the ocean)
Enough light to see .1% light. 100-200m
Aphotic Zone
No light. 200m and below
Depth Zone 1. sunlight Zone 0-200m
Depth Zone 2. 200-1000 m.
Depth Zone 3. 1000-4000 m. 
Depth Zone 4. Most of the ocean is in this zone 4000-6000 meters.
Depth Zone 5. Deepest part 6,000-11,000. Deepest point in ocean Mariana trench 11,022m.
Remotely Operated Vehicles
Ships check these elements when exploring: Conductivity (Salinaty: the saltiness of the water), Tempreture, Depth.
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles--not teather, used for exploring, programed the path before it goes, covers 100 meters, surveys the area
Submarine-45 years old, can only cover 63% of the ocean floor, 4500 dives, 4000 meters
Hybrid between ROV/AUV can go down to 11,00 meters, first expedition this past march, went to challenger deep (deepest point in the ocean)
Depth Measurents: Before and Modern
Before: depth was determined by using a line and tying knots. Modern: Beam of sound waves travels to bottom and is reflected back to ship.Through Satelite-Geostat.
Depth= V (t/2)
Hypothermal Vents:
Where does the hot water come from?
Up to 400 C. Ph can reach 2-3 (can melt lead just based on acidity). Rich in sulficides.
Hot water comes from volcanoes at the bottom of the sea
Pressure and Water Boiling Relationship
The More Pressure the Higher the Tempreture neccessary to make water boil.
Mid Oceanic Ridge
High Volcanic Activity. -Hot magma makes it more buoyant (higher) -Earthquakes  associated with it. -Heat generated by radioactive decay -Surface of Earth sculpted by movement of heat generated in Earth's core.
Convenction Cells
Heat rising, cooling, going back down to the core --> driving hypothermal vents and continental drift.
Divergent Plate Coundary
-Hot magma comes to surface to form a new crust. Old crust moves down. Mantel solid but like "silly putty". When the plates are going down --> trenches. Oceanic plates denser, heavier, and older.
Sea Floor Spreading
 Balsaltic magma rises to create new ocean floor at the mid-ocean ridges. On each side of the ridge, sea floor moves from the ridge towards deep-sea trenches where it is subducted and recycled.
Chemistry: pressure, hot, acidic, minerals
Life: Alvinella living on the base of them, can survice at 78C in Hypothermal Vents
In bacteria/lives together
The use of chemicals to get the energy
Mid Atlantic Ridge
More iron, lots of shrimp and mussels, sulfer deposits
Whale Falls
When Whales die; animals live on the decomposed carcus on the sea floor. -Osedex-new species found hear "boneeater" eats lipids inside the bone.
Color of Fish
Mainly Red or Transparent--much harder to see
Why is the ocean blue?
Light has different wavelengths. Top 10 meters lose all red/yellow particles it dissapartes. Purple has so much energy it gets scattered off of particles. Blue and Green go down the farthest and get reflected back into your eyes.
Average weather: tempreture, precipitation, cloudiness. Long term statistics. Atmosphere (air), Hydrosphere (water), Lithosphere (crust), and Biosphere
Heat vs. Tempreture
Heat: How many and rapidly atoms vibrate

Tempreture: how rapidly atoms vibrate
Heat Capacity
Amount of heat required to bring a substance to a certain tempreture varies 1.00 water .2granite (calories/gram/degrees)
Latent Heat
"hidden heat" heat associated with a change phase but no change in tempreture
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Band of clouds where it rains a lot
Ekman Transport
Forms dome-which sinks compressing the layers beneath forcing those layers to spead, thermocline is pushed deeper
Jet Stream
Divides the polar cell from the ferral cell
Heat Budget
How much Sun is goin in and where it goes