Intro To Antibiotics, Penicillins, & Cephalosporins

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Penicillin And Cepahlosporin Antibiotic Drugs

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What are the 3 Main categoris of Antibiotic Resistance - how does a bacterium change so drug can't stop it?
1) Drug can't get to target - cell wall is changed, or efflux mechanism by bacetrium; 2) Altered drug binding site; 3) Drug itself is inactivated - can occur via bacterial plasmid
Which 3 bacteria/groups cause the most superinfections?
1. Enterobacteriaciae, 2. Pseudomonas, 3. Candida (fungi)
What is the MOA of a cell wall synthesis inhibitor?
Antibiotic binds to PBPs (which is also called the transpeptidase).  This transpeptidase links peptidoglycans in the cell walls, so by binding it they can't be linked.  
What does MIC stand for in relation to pharmacodynamics?
MIC = Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, the minimum amount of drug to stop bacterial growth.
What specifically causes the rash in a penicillin allergy?
Penicilloic acid.
What is unique about the Aminopenicillins in the penicillin family?
It is an Extended Spectrum Penicillin - meaning it has a wider spectrum of coverage.  Also ESP are Ureidopenicillins (Piperacillin) and Carboxypenicillins (Ticarcillin).
How does a Beta-Lactamase inhibitor work?
It binds the site on the Beta-lactam ring where the Beta-lactamase would cleave it.  By binding this inhibits the lactamase from cleaving.  This also increases the action of the 2nd drug binding the PBPs and killing the bacterium.
Which Penicillin/Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor combo has activity against Pseudomonas?
Which penicillin is commonly given before dental procedures to ward off infections that could cause Endocarditis?
What is changed in the structure of the Cephalosporins compared to Penicillins?
Side chains are added - give more stability and broader spectrum of bacteria to attack.  
How are Cephalosporins eliminated?  What is the 1 exception?
Renal elimination.  Exception = Ceftriaxone.
What general 2 types of Adverse Effects do Cephalosporins as a class show?
Dermotologic - skin rashes, irritation.  Hemotologic - leukopenia, thrombocytopenia.
What has a more broad coverage - 1st or 4th generation cephalosporins?
4th generation has broadest coverage, 1st has narrowest coverage.  
What 2nd generation Cephalosporin is the drug of choice for abdominal infections?
What cephalosporins can cover Pseudomonas?
3rd generation Ceftazidime and 4th generation Cefepime.
What cephalosporins would you treat community acquired pneumonia with?
2nd generation Cefuroxime, or 3rd generation Cefpodoxime.