Immunology Chapter 1 And 2

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Immunology Chapter 1 And 2

Immuno 1 And 2

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Two types of host defense systems
innate and adaptive immunity
first line of defense; nonspecific; always present
innate immunity
specific or acquired defense
adaptive immunity
two major classes of lymphocytes in adaptive immunity
B and T cells
lymphocyte most responsible for the clearance of extracellular microbes
B cells
lymphocyte population most responsible for the clearance of intracellular microbes
T cells
classes of T cells
helper, cytolytic, regulatory
substance, usually foreign, that reacts with an antibody
substance, usually foreign that elicits an immune response
lymphocyte population that secretes antibodies
B cells (plasma cells)
lymphocyte population that directly kills infected cells
cytotoxic T cells
lymphocyte population that helps B cells make antibodies
T helper cells
lymphocyte population that helps activate macrophages 
T helper cells
active immunity that is naturally acquired
recovery from infection
active immunity that is artificially acquired
passive immmunity that is artificially acquired
injection of immune globulin
passive immunity that is naturally acquired
placental transfer of IgG
passive immunity that is naturally acquired
breast feeding of IgA
Maturation stage of a mature lymphocyte that has not yet engaged antigen
naive lymphocyte
maturation stage of a mature lymphocyte that has been activated by antigen
effector lymphocyte
maturation stage of mature lymphocyte that is long lived and ready to rapidly respond to antigen on the second/subsequent exposures
memory lypmphocyte
secondary lymphoid tissue where the response occurs to blood-borne antigens
secondary lymphoid tissue where the response occurs to tissue-borne antigens
lymph nodes, MALT, GALT, BALT
major cell types involved in innate immunity
granulocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells,
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
primary lymphoid tissue
bone marrow, thymus
anatomic location where stem cells reside
bone marrow
anatomic site of B cell maturation
bone marrow
anatomic site of T cell maturation
cells that capture and present peptides to T cells
antigen-presenting cells (APC)
professional antigen presenting cells
dendritic cells, macrophages, B cells, FDC
Response to first exposure to an antigen
primary immune response
response to repeat encounters with same antigen
secondary immune response
major antibody produced in serum during primary immune response
major antibody produced in serum during secondary immune response
anatomic location of T cells in lymph nodes
anatomic location of B cells in lymph nodes
follicle (cortex)
anatomic location of T cells in spleen
periarteriolar sheath
specialized venules in lymph nodes where T cells enter
high endothelial venules
cellular receptors for microbial antigens on innate immune cells
pathogen recognition receptors
LPS, peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid, viral RNA, fungal mannans
pathogen associated molecular patterns
general characteristics of innate immunity
no induction period, specificity or memory
extensive physical barrier to infection
epithelial lining of portals of entry
most active phagocytic cell and most abundant circulating WBC
neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells
phagocytic cells
lyosozyme, reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide
microbicidal molecules of phagocytes
enzyme responsible for production of reactive oxygen species
phagocyte oxidase
pro-inflammatory cytokines that target endothelium, among others
adhesion molecules expressed on endothelium that mediate rolling of leukocytes
E and P selectins
adhesion molecules expressed on leukocytes that mediate thethering of leukocytes
lymphocytes of innate immunity that provide early defense against viral infections
NK cells
major sourse of interfereon-y (IFN) in innate immune system
NK cellss
structural domains found on inhibitory receptors of NK cells
structural domains found on activating receptors of NK cells
intraepithelial lymphocytes that are early sentinels of bacterial infections
gamma delta T cells
activator of classical pathway of complement
antibody binding to C1q
activator of alternative pathway of complement
binding of C3b to microbial surfaces
activator of lectin pathway of complement
terminal mannose residues of microbial glyoproteins
major opsonin generated by complement activation
pro-inflammatory molecules generated by complement activation
C3a and C5a
polymeric protein complex that lyses microbes
membrane attack complex (MAC), C6-C9
cytokines that activate endothelium
TNF and IL-1
class of cytokines that increase integrin affinity and are chemotacic
cytokine that induces interfereon-gamma production by NK cells and T cells
cytokine that activates macrophages
anti-viral cytokines
IFNa/b (Type I IFNs)
cytokine that down-regulates immune responses
pro-inflammatory cytokines
TFN, IL-1, IL-6
inducers of acute phase response
IL-6, TNF, IL-1
induces proliferation of plasma cells
C-reactive protein, mannose-binding lectin and others
acute phase proteins
signals generated by innate immune response to stimulate lymphocytes
B7, C3d, and IL-12
substances given with vaccines that stimulate immune responses
neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, basophils, esinophils
cells quantified on a CBC