Human Anatomy Exam #1 Testing Your Recall

170 cards
Human Anatomy Exam #1 Testing Your Recall

These Flashcards Contain The Questions And Answers From The "Testing Your Recall" Section And Some Of The "True/False" Section Of The Human Anatomy Textbook By Saladin (2nd Edition).  These Correlate With Exam #1 Of The Spring 2009 Semester Consisting Of Chapters 1,2,3,6,7,8 And Atlas A.

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Which cells have a ruffled border and secrete hydrochloric acid?
The medullary cavity of a child's bone may contain:
red bone marrow
The long bones of the limbs grow in length by cell proliferation and hypertrophy in:
the metaphysis
Osteoclasts are most closely related, by common descent, to
The walls between cartilage lucunae break down in the zone of:
bone deposition
Which of these does not promote bone deposition? (dietary calcium, Vit D, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, testosterone)
parathyroid hormone
A child jumps to the ground from the top of a playground "jungle Gym." His leg bones do not shatter mainly b/c they contain:
collagen fibers
One long bone meets another at its:
Calcitriol is made from:
One sign of osteoporosis is:
Calcium phosphate crystallizes in bone as a mineral called __________.
Osteocytes contact each other through channels called ________ in the bone matrix.
A bone increases in diameter only by _______ growth, the addition of new surface lamellae.
Most conpact bone is organized in cylindrical units called _______ , composed of lamellae encircling a central canal.
The _____ glands secrete a hormone that stimulates cells to resorb bone and return its minerals to the blood.
The ends of a bone are covered with a layer of hyaline cartilage called the _____.
articular cartilage
The cells that deposit new bone matrix are called _________.
The most common bone disease is ______.
The transitional region btw. epiphyseal cartilage & the primary marrow cavity of a young bone is called the ________.
The cranial bones develop from a flat sheet of condensed mesenchyme in a process called _________.
intramembranous ossification
The most common bone disorder is _________.
The growth zone is the ________.
epiphyseal plate
Osteoclasts develop from stem cells relating to __________.
The protein of the bone matrix is _______.
Only the ___________ is hemopoietic.
red blood marrow
The vertebral bodies are derived from the _________.
Adults have _________ bones than children do.
The _______________ of the temporal bone and maxilla also contribute to the arch.
zygomatic process
The _______________ lies loosely against most of the cranium.
dura mater
Lumbar vertebrae have _______________, but not transverse costal facets.
transverse processes
Each hand and foot has how many phalanges?
The upper limb is attached to the _____________.
glenohumeral joint
The arm contains only the ___________, but the leg contains the ________ and _______.
humerus tibia, fibula
The most frequently broken bone is the ________.
The ___________ is the opening in the floor of the greater pelvis leading into the lesser pelvis.
pelvic inlet
Directionally: The diaphram is ________ to the lungs
How many organs are contained btw. the parietal and visceral pleurae?
Where is the liver located?
In the right hypochondriac and epigastric regions
What lines the abdominal cavity and external surfaces of the stomach?
Where is the sigmoid colon located?
in the lower left quadrant
How much protein does the plasma membrane contain?
Osmosis is a case of __________.
simple diffusion
The noncellular components of tissue include ________ and ________.
ground substance and fibers
Macrophages develop from _________.
What is it called when one mature tissue type transforms into another?
What is it called when one listens to the sounds of the body?
What method is concerned with all aspects of medical imaging?
Nearly every cell contains many ________.
_____________ was a textile merchant by trade.
______________ was probably an adaptation to the arboreal habitat.
Stereoscopic vision
Which of these is not a paranasal sinus? (frontal, temporal, shenoid, ethmoid, maxillary)
Which of these is a facial bone? (frontal, temporal, occipital, ethmoid, lacrimal)
What occupies the transverse foramina seen in certain vertebrae?
vertebral arteries
All of the following groups of vertebrae except ______, which is a spinal curvature. (thoracic, cervical, lumbar, pelvic, sacral)
Thoracic vertebrae do not have... (transverse foramina, costal facets, transverse costal facets, transverse processes, pedicles)
transverse foramina
Which of theese bones forms by intramembranous ossification? (vertebrae, pariteal bone, occipital bone, sternum, rib)
parietal bone
The viscerocranium includes the ________.
Which of these is not a suture? (parietal, coronal, lambdoid, sagittal, squamous)
The sella turcica contains the ___________.
pituitary gland
The nasal septum is composed partly of the same bone as the ______.
cribriform plate
Gaps btw. the cranial bones of an infant are called ___________.
The external acoustic meatus is an opening in the _________ bone.
Bones of the skull are joined along lines called _________.
The ______ bone has greater and lesser wings and protects the pituitary.
A herniated disc occurs when a ring called the ___________ cracks.
anulus fibrosus
The transverse ligament of the atlas holds the ________ of the axis in place.
The sacroiliac joint is formed where the ________ surface of the sacrum articulates with that of the ilium.
We have five pairs of ________ ribs and two pairs of _______ ribs.
false, floating
Ribs 1 and 10 are joined to the sternum by way of strips of connective tissue called _____________.
costal cartilage
The point at the inferior end of the sternum is the __________.
xiphoid process
The hip bone is attached to the axial skeleton through its _________.
auricular surface
Which of these bones supports the most body weight? (ilium, pubis, femur, tibia, talus)
Which can be most easily palpated on a living person? (deltoid tuberosity, gr8ter sciatic notch, medial malleolus, coracoid process, glenoid cavity)
the medial malleolus
Compared to the male pelvis, the pelvis of a female ___________.
has a rounder pelvic inlet
The lateral and medial malleoli are most similar to ____________.
the radial and ulnar styloid processes
When you rest your hands on your hips, you are resting them on the _________.
Iliac crests
The disc-shaped head of the radius articulates with the _______ of the humerus.
All of the following are carpal bones except the ______, which is a tarsal bone. (trapezium, cuboid, traezoid, triquetrum, pisiform)
The bone that supports your body weight when you are sitting down is the _________.
Which of these is the bone if the heel? (cuboid, calcaneus, navicular, trochlear, talus)
The Latin anatomical name for the thumb is _______, and the name for the great toe is _______.
pollex, hallux
The acromion and coracoid process are parts of what bone?
How many phalanges, total, does the human body have?
The bony prominences on each side of your elbow are the lateral and medial _______ of the humerus.
One of the wrist bones, the ________, is characterized by a prominent hook.
The fibrocartilage pad that holds the pelvic girdle together anteriorly is called the _______.
interpubic disc
The leg proper, btw. the knee and ankle, is called the _____ region.
The _______ processes of the radius and ulna form bony protuberances on each side of the wrist.
Two massive protuberances unique to the proximal end of the femur are the greater and lesser _________.
The ______ arch of the foot extends from the heel to the great toe.
medial longitudinal
Structure that can be observed with the naked eye is called _________.
gross anatomy
What technique requires an injection of radioisotopes into a patient's bloodstream?
PET scan
The simplest structures considered to be alive are ________.
Who revolutionized the teaching of gross anatomy?
What characteristics do humans share with all other chordates?
notochord, tail extending beyond anus, hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal arches
Who argued that all living organisms are composed of cells?
A person's blood sugar level rises & insulin is secreted. This stimulates cells to absorb glucose & thus brings the glucose level back to normal. Ex.?
The word root 'histo-' means?
The word root 'patho-' means?
The prefix 'hetero-' means?
Cutting and separating tissues to reveal their structural relationships is called _____.
______ invented many components of the compund microscope and named the cell.
Robert Hooke
The term for all chemical change in the body is _______.
Most physiology serves the purpose of ______, maintaining a stable internal environment in the body.
______ is a science that doesn;t merely describe bodily structure but interprets structure in terms of its function.
functional morphology
When a Dr. presses on the upper abdomen to feel the size and texture of the liver, he/she is using a technique called _______.
______ is a method of medical imaging that uses X-rays and a computer to generate images of thin slices of the body.
computed tomography
A/an _____ is the simplest body structure to be composed of two or more types of tissue.
Depth perception, or the ability to form 3-D images, is called __________ vision.
Our hands are said to be _____ b/c they can encircle an object such as a branch or tool. Presence of a/an _____ thumb is important to this ability.
prehensile, opposable
Which of the following is not an essential part of anatomical position? (eyes forward, feet flat, forearms supine, mouth closed, arms down to sides)
mouth closed
A ring-shaped section of the small intestine would be a _____ section.
Directionally: The tarsal region is ______ to the popliteal region.
Directionally: The greater omentum is ____ to the small intestine.
A _____ line passes through the sternum, umbilicus, and mons pubis.
The _______ region is immediately medial to the coxal region.
Which of the following regions is not part of the upper limb? (plantar, carpal, antecubital, brachial, palmar)
Which of these organs is intraperitoneal? (urinary bladder, kidneys, heart, small intestine, brain)
small intestine
In which area do you think pain from the gallbladder would be felt?
right upper quadrant
Which of the following is not an organ system? (muscular, integumentary, endocrine, lymphatic, immune
immune system
The forearm is said to be ____ when the palms are facing forward.
The more superficial layer of the pleura is called the _____ pleura.
The right and left pleural cavities are separated by a thick region called the _____.
The back of the head is called the _____ region, and the back of the neck is the ______ region.
occipital, nuchal
The manus is more commonly known as the ______, and the pes is more commonly known as the ______.
hand, foot
The cranial cavity is lined by membranes called the ______.
Abdominal organs that lie against the posterior abdominal wall & covered with peritoneum only on the anterior side have a/an ______ position.
Directionally: The sternal region is ______ to the pectoral region.
The pelvic cavity can be described as ______ to the abdominal cavity in position.
The anterior pit of the elbow is the ______ region, and the corresponding (but posterior) pit of the knee is the ____ fossa.
cubital, popliteal
The clear, structureless gel in a cell is its
New nuclei form and a cell pinches in two during which phase?
The amount of ____ in a plasma membrane affects its stiffness versus fluidity.
Cells specialized for absorption of matter from the ECF are likely to show and abundance of
Osmosis is a special case of
simple diffusion
Embryonic stem cells are best described as
pluripotent "having more than one potential outcome"
The amount of DNA in a cell doubles during which phase?
the S phase
Fusion of a secretory vesicle w/the plasma membrane & release of the vesicle's contents is
Most cellular membranes are made by
the endoplasmic reticulum
Matter can leave a cell by any of the following means except: (active transport, pinocytosis, facilitated diffusion, simple diffusion, exocytosis)
Most human cells are 10 to 15 ______ wide.
When a hormone cannot enter a cell, it binds to a _____ at the cell surface.
_______ are channels in the plasma membrane that open or close in response to various stimuli.
Most ATP is produced by organelles called _______.
Leakage btw. cells is restricted by intracellular junctions called ________.
tight junctions
Thin scaly cells are described by the term
Two human organelles that are surrounded by a double unit membrane are the _____ & _____.
squamous mitochondrion, nuclear envelop
Liver cells can detoxify alcohol with two organelles, the _____ & _____.
peroxisomes, smooth ER
Cells adhere to each other and to extracellular material by means of membrane proteins called ______.
cell-adhesion molecules
A macrophage would use the process of _______ to engulf a dying tissue cell.
Transitional epithelium is found in which system?
urinary system
The external surface of the stomach is covered by
a serosa "lines and encloses contents"
The interior of the respiratory tract is lined with
a mucosa
A seminiferous tubule of the testis is lined with ______ epithelium.
stratified cuboidal
When the blood supply to a tissue is cut off, the tissue is most likely to undergo
necrosis "premature or unnatural death of cells and living tissue"
A fixative serves to
stop tissue decay
The collagen of areolar tissue is prodeuced by
Tendons are composed of _______ connective tissue.
dense regular
The shape of the external ear is due to
elastic cartilage
The most abundant formed element(s) of blood is/are
The prearranged death of a cell that has completed its task is called
The simple squamous epithelium that lines the peritoneal cavity is called ______.
mesothelium (programmed cell death)
Osteocytes and chondrocytes occupy little cavities called _______.
Muscle cells and axons are often called _______ b/c of their shape.
Tendons and ligaments are made mainly of the protein _________.
A ________ adult stem cell can differentiate into two or more types of mature cells, but not into just any type.
multipotent "Self-renew for long periods of time and differentiate into specialized cells with specific functions"
An epithelium rests on a layer called the _______ btw. its deepest cells and the underlying connective tissue.
basement membrane
Fibers and ground substance make up the _____ of a connective tissue.
In _______ glands, the secretion is formed by the complete disintegration of teh gland cells.
Any epithelium in which every cell touches the basement membrane is called a _________ epithelium.