HRM Final Chapter 9

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Chapter 9 

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A broad process that requires managers to define, facilitate, and encourage performance by providing timely feedback and constantly focusing everyone's attention to the ultimate objectives
Performance management
A review of the job-relevant strengths and weaknesses of an individual or a team in an organization
Performance appraisal
An approach to management to which roadblocks to successful performance of employees are eliminated. adequate resources to get a job done right and on time are, and careful attention ins paid to the selection of employees
Performance Facilitation
Provision of a sufficient amount of rewards that employees really value, in a timely, fair manner
Performance encouragement
In an effective appraisal system, a requirement that there be clear links between the performance standard for a particular job and the origination's goals, and clear links between the critical job elements identified through an job analysis and the dimensions to be rated on an appraisal form
Criteria that specify how well, not how, the work is to be done, by defining levels of acceptable or unacceptable employee behavior
Performance standards
The extent to which a performance measure is deemed to be satisfactory or adequate by those who use it
Implies that appraisal instrument are easy for managers and employees to understand and use
Individuals who are eligible for and interested in selection or promotion
Applicant group
An appraisal method in which employee performance is rated either by comparing the performance of employees to that of other employees or by evaluating each employee in terms of performance standards without reference to others
Behavior-oriented rating method
Simplest type of absolute rating system, in which a rater describes, in writing, an employee's strengths, weaknesses, and potential, together with suggestions for improvements
Narrative essay
Requires only that the rater order all employees from highest to lowest, from 'best' employee to 'worst' employee
Simple ranking
A ranking method in which a rater initially lists all employees on a sheet of paper and then chooses the best employees, worst employee, second best, second worst, and so forth until all employees have been ranked 
Alternation ranking
A behavior-oriented rating method in which an employee is compared to every other employee; the rater chooses the 'better' of each pair and each employee's rank is determined by counting the number of times she or he was rated superior.
Paired comparsions
A rating method in which the overall distribution of ratings is forced into a normal, or bell shaped, curve, under the assumption that a relatively small portion of employee is truly outstanding, a relatively small portion is unsatisfactory , and all other employees fall in between
Forced distribution
The tendency to rate every employee high or excellent on all criteria
The tendency to rate every employee low on the criteria being evaluated
In rating employees, a tendency to give employees an average rating on each criterion
Central tendency
A type of behavioral checklist with declarative sentences and weighted response categories; the rater checks the response category that he or she thinks best describes the employee and sums the weights of the responses that were checked for each item.
Likert method of summed ratings
In job analysis, vignettes consisting of brief actual reports that illustrate particularly effective or ineffective worker behaviors; a behavior-oriented rating method consisting of such anecdotal reports.
Critical incidents
Identify, and may define, each dimension to be rated, and present the rater with alternative scale points that may or may not defined
graphic rating scales
Graphic rating scales that defined the dimensions to be rated in behavioral terms and use critical incidents to describe carious levels of performance
Behaviorally anchored rating scales
A philosophy of management with a results-oriented rating method that relies on goal-setting to establish objectives for the organization as a whole, for each department, for each manager, and for each employee, thus providing a measure of each employee's contribution to the success of the organization.
Management by objectives
Emphasizes periodic review of work plans by both supervisor and subordinate in order to identify goals attained, problems encountered, and needs for training.
Work planning and review
Performance assessments from above, below and at the same level as an employee. it may also include feedback from customers
360 degree feedback
A rating error occurring when an appraiser rates an employee high (or low) on many aspects of job performance because the appraiser believes the employee performs well (or poorly) on some specific aspect
Halo error
A tendency among interviewers to evaluate an current candidate's interview performance relative to the performance of immediately preceding candidates 
Contrast error
A rating error occurring when an appraiser assigns a rating on the basis of the employee's most recent performance rather than on long-term performance
Recency error
A form of rater training that attempts to establish a common perspective and standards among raters
Frame-of-reference training
Listening to which five things are done well; taking time to listen, communicating verbally and nonverbal, not interrupting or arguing, watching for verbal and nonverbal cures, and summarizing what was said and what was agreed to
Active listening
Criticism that is general is nature; that is frequently delivered in a biting, sarcastic tone and that often attributes poor performance to internal causes
Destructive criticism