History Test: 1

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starving time 1609
burrying done with haste.
for jamestown
 Jamestown in the Colony of Virginia was a period of starvation during the winter of 1609–1610 in which all but 60 of 500 colonists died.
headright system
  a system of obtaining land in colonial times in which one received fifty acres of land forevery emigrant to America one sponsored
john ratcliffe 
one of the defacto leaders, led efforts to coerce corn from powhataon, offends powhatan

was captain of the Discovery, one of three ships that sailed from England on December 19, 1606, to Virginia, to found a colony, arriving May 13, 1607. He later became the second president of the colony which later became Jamestown. He was killed by the Powhatan Indians.
1st settlers-male
like the roanoke colonists, they chose a site with strategy in mind 
founded by VA company 
want to share the Gospel 
BIG REASON: money 100 people 
peninsula on James river 
wanted to be far enough upstream from the coast to defend themselces from the spanish 
led by white
Colonists dispatched by Sir Walter Raleigh founded the first English settlement in North America in August 1585 but returned to England the following year. A second group of colonists organized by Raleigh landed on the island in July 1587 but vanished sometime before 1591.
John Rolfe 
married poccanhontas 
exported tobacco for Jamestown 
sir walter raleigh 
became queen elizabeths favorite -one of the admirers 
designated by the queen to colonize north america
popularizes tobacco 
Anne hutchinson 
was a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and important participant in the Antinomian Controversy that shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638. Her strong religious convictions were at odds with the established Puritan clergy in the Boston area, and her popularity and charisma helped create a theological schism that threatened to destroy the Puritans' religious experiment in New England. She was eventually tried and convicted, then banished from the colony with many of her supporters
edward winslow 
 Separatist who traveled on the Mayflower in 1620. He was one of several senior leaders on the ship and also later at Plymouth Colony. In Plymouth he served in a number of governmental positions such as assistant governor, three times was governor and also was the colony’s agent in London.[1] In early 1621 he had been one of several key leaders that Governor Bradford depended on after the death of John Carver
wrote with Bradford 
john carver 
first governer of plymouth 
formed alliance with massasoit that lasted over forty years 
Gulf Stream
1512 expedition of Juan Ponce de León, after which it became widely used by Spanish ships sailing from the Caribbean to Spain.[1] 
john smith
e was considered to have played an important part in the establishment of the first permanent English settlement in North America. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony (based at Jamestown) between September 1608 and August 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay. He was the first English explorer to map the Chesapeake Bay area and New England.
When Jamestown was England's first permanent settlement in the New World, Smith trained the settlers to farm and work, thus saving the colony from early devastation. He publicly stated "he who shall not work, shall not eat".
Roger williams 
 In 1636, he began the colony of Providence Plantation, which provided a refuge for religious minorities. Williams started the first Baptist church in America, the First Baptist Church of Providence. He was a student of Native American languages and an advocate for fair dealings with Native Americans.  was arguably the first abolitionist in North America, having organized the first attempt to prohibit slavery in any of the original thirteen colonies.
john winthrop 
wealthy English Puritan lawyer and one of the leading figures in the founding of theMassachusetts Bay Colony, the first major settlement in New England after Plymouth Colony.  led the first large wave of migrants from England in 1630, and served as governor for 12 of the colony's first 20 years of existence. His writings and vision of the colony as a Puritan "city upon a hill" dominated New England colonial development, influencing the government and religion of neighboring colonies
a member of a group of Protestants that arose in the 16th century within the Church of England,demanding the simplification of doctrine and worship, and greater strictness in religious discipline:during part of the 17th century the Puritans became a powerful political party.
VA company 
failed in 1624
 a pair of English joint stock companies chartered by James I on 10 April 1606[1][2][3] with the purposes of establishing settlements on the coast of North America.[4] The two companies, called the "Virginia Company of London" (or the London Company) and the "Virginia Company of Plymouth" (or Plymouth Company) operated with identical charters but with differing territories. An area of overlapping territory was created within which the two companies were not permitted to establish colonies within one hundred miles of each other. The Plymouth Company never fulfilled its charter, and its territory that later became New England was at that time also claimed by England.
powhatan confederation 
(led VA) 
a network of Algonquian-speaking Indian settlements in Virginia that was ruled by Powhatan.
sir thomas dale 
English naval commander and deputy-governor of the Virginia Colony in 1611 and from 1614 to 1616. put into effect the Laws Divine, moral, and martial. jamestown became a work camp. at war with powhatan until john rolfe married pocahantis. 
 Native American who assisted the Pilgrims after their first winter in the New World and was integral to their survival. He was a member of the Patuxet tribe, a tributary of the Wampanoag Confederacy. During his lifetime, he crossed the Atlantic Ocean six times.(Massachusetts/rhode island) 
narragansett indians 
enemies of wampenoag 
capital ? 
mostly survived the plague years that preceded pilgrims 
William Bradford 
after john carver died, he bacame governor of plymouth. he and miles standish worked to keep the colony's alliance with massasiot viable. plymouth and wampanoag became part of a transatlantic fur trade. 

English Separatist leader in Leiden, Holland and in Plymouth Colony was a signatory to the Mayflower Compact.
ship that transported mostly English Puritans and Separatists, collectively known today as the Pilgrims, from a site near the ________step in Plymouth, England, to Massachusetts, in 1620.[1] There were 102 passengers and a crew of 25–30.
 tribal chief of the Powhatan Confederacy of what is now Virginia in the United States, and its leader from sometime after 1618 until his death in 1646. His name meant "He whose Soul is White" in the Algonquian Powhatan language.[2] He was the famous Chief Powhatan's younger brother (or possibly half-brother).
myles standish 
worked with bradford to keep colony's alliance with massasoit viable. 
plymouth colony militia leader (not a puritan); staged a pre emptive raid in which the warrior wituwamat was beheaded. the _____Raid (or Wessagursett Massacre) helped consolodate massasoits power. 
Pequot war 
armed conflict between the ______tribe and an alliance of the English colonists of the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth,Saybrook colonies and their Native American allies (the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes) which occurred between 1634 and 1638. The Pequots lost the war. At the end, about seven hundred Pequots had been killed or taken into captivity.[1] Hundreds of prisoners were sold into slavery to theWest Indies.[2] Other survivors were dispersed. The result was the elimination of the _____as a viable polity in what is present-day Southern New England.
church of england
church required for everyone to go to in this place 
colony founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the famous ship the Mayflower.  where New England was first established
headship tribe of the many tribes that make up the Wampanoag Nation
best known for the thanksgiving with the pilgrims 
natick, nashoba 
praying indian villages (?) established by eliot
ship, along with Mayflower, transported the pilgrims and was the smaller of the two ships
sarah doublet
last indian to hold the title to the 500 acre indian reservation of 1714
plymouth rock
traditional site of disembarkation of William Bradford and the Mayflower Pilgrims who founded Plymouth Colony in 1620. It is an important symbol in American history
rhode island 
3rd place to becom a colony ; established by roger williams (with anne hutchinson because they were exiled by the purians of the massachusetts bay colony) 
thomas harriot 
accompanied roanoke expedition 
plymouth was once ______
wiped out town where plymouth was built 
indian tripe led by massasoit.. made alliance with massachusetts bay colony after king philips (also leader of this tribe) war 
bacons rebellion
armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by young Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. The colony's disorganized frontier political structure, combined with accumulating grievances (including leaving Bacon out of his inner circle, refusing to allow Bacon to be a part of his fur trade with the Indians, Doeg tribe Indian attacks), helped to motivate a popular uprising against Berkeley, who had failed to address the demands of the colonists regarding their safety.
peter minuit 
He was Director of the Dutch colony of New Netherland from 1626 until 1633, and founded the Swedishcolony of New Sweden in 1638. According to tradition, he purchased the island of Manhattan from Native Americans on May 24, 1626 for goods valued at 60 Dutch guilders, which in the 19th century was estimated to be the equivalent of US$24 (or $670 today).
establishment of this place demontrated puritan emphasis on scholarship (1636) 
john eliot
wanted to minister to masssasoit, translated the bible into alagonquin in the 1650s and established praying towns. (maybe viewed himself too highly) 
Samuel de champlain 
 "The Father ofNew France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler. He founded New France and Quebec City on July 3, 1608. He is important to Canadian history because he made the first accurate map of the coast and he helped establish the settlements.
john sassamon
, also known as Wassausmon (in Massachusett), was born circa 1600 in or about the Blue Hills area, current Canton, Massachusetts. He became a Christian convert, a praying Indian who served as an interpreter to the colonists, as well as an aide to Metacomet, chief of the Wampanoag Confederacy.
james I 
KJV bible, gave charter for VA company , king 
laws divine, moral, and martial 
1612 put into effect by sir thomas dale (work camp) 
elizabeth I
last monarch ofthe Tudor dynasty
merchant adventurers 
merchant who establishes foreign trading stations and carries on business ventures abroad; esp :  a member of one of the former English companies of _______ operating from the 14th to the 16th centuries
daughter of powhatan, chief of algonquin speaking VA indians . married john rolfe 
anne bradstreet 
e first poet and first female writer in the British North American colonies to be published. Her first volume of poetry was The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America, published in 1650.
benjamin church
 first Surgeon General of the U.S. Army, serving as the "Chief Physician & Director General" of the Medical Service of the Continental Army from July 27, 1775 to October 17, 1775. He was also active in Boston's Sons of Libertymovement in the years before the war. However, early in the American Revolution, Church was also sending secret information to General Thomas Gage, the British commander, and when one of his letters into Boston was intercepted, he was tried and convicted of "communicating with the enemy".
beaheaded in standish raid (wessagusett massacre) 
thomas weston
1622: 50 new colonists made colony near plymouth called wessagusett. it wasnt faith based; it was envisioned by this guy. he wanted money. colonists came from england--lots of violence 
massachusetts bay company
joint stock company which had a land grant from charles I (city on a hill )