History And Systems Of Psychology 357

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History Of Psychology 357

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Why did Gestalt psychology fail to take in the US?
American psychologists viewed gestalt psychology to address mainly perception
Why did the gestaltists oppose wundt?
Gestalt psychologist rejected wndt's and titchener's attempts to reduce consciousness to its basic elements.
What does the word gestalt mean?
shape or form
what is isomorphism?
the doctrine that there is a correspondence between psychological or conscious experience and the underlying brain experience.
Who came up with field theory?
Lewin's system using the concept of fields of force to explain behavior in terms of one's field of social influences.
according to kohler, trial and error learning could be remedied how? 
apparent motion is?
illusion of movement
what is the zeigarnik effect?
the tendency to recall uncompleted tasks more than completed tasks, 
which gestaltist, who wasn't jewish, demanded reinstatement of his jewish colleague?
what got wertheimer interested in perception?
noticed apparent motion while traveling on a train.
what did kohler discover in his work with apes?
their ability to devise and use simple tools and build simple structures
Who was the father of american psychiatry?
Benjamin Rush
who was responsible for the iceberg analogy of the consciousness and unconsciousness often used to describe freudian psychology?
gustav fechner
who suggested the concept of monads?
gottfried wilhelm leibnitz
who is usually credited as being the first to release asylum inmates from their bonds?
Phillipe pinel
Benjamin Rush advocated which treatments for the insane?
tranquilizing to sedating, bloodletting
what was the effect of dorothea dix's work?
reformed prisons and psychiatric care throughout the eastern US
Compare Herbart's conceptualization of ideas with that of James Mill
petite perceptions exist below the threshold of consciousness
who proposed mathematical formulas to describe and explain the movement of ideas between the unconscious and the conscious?
the psychic approach to mental illness was encouraged in the US by?
pierre janet
the attitude towards sex in vienna of the victorian era was?
found that hysterical women could be cured by talking about their sex lives
What was the real story about Anna O?
went on to become a well known social worker
at the time of freud's death, the dominant form of american psychology was what?
The primary goal of psychoanalysis as therapy is?
lead to what was really significant
what was feud's early research about?
eel testes, neurophysiology
What happened to Freudian psychology in Germany?
Freud's book were burned by Nazi's
Psychosexual stages of Freud's theory.
oral stage: 0-1. stimulation of the mouthanal stage: 1-3. process of eliminationphallic stage: 3-6. notices and attracted to opposite sex parentlatency stage: 6-puberty. dormantgenital stage: puberty-on. sexual urges re-awaken
originally a concept of aristotle to treat emotional difficulties
How did Freud react to challenges to his theory?
changed his theory
Freud died as a result of what?
physician injected him with morphine
What is repression?
process of barring unacceptable ideas, memories, or desires from conscious awareness, leaving them to operate in the unconscious mind.
which analyst broke with Freud over his claim that women feel inferior to men?
Josef Breuer
compare and contrast the primary elements of Freud's stage theory with that of Erikson.
Freud's stages focus on sexual stimuli/problems
What is melanie Klein best known for?
description of the two positions infants take towards objects: paranoid-schizoid - projections to external objects, depressive - internalizing hate of an external object
How did Anna Freud's system of psychoanalysis differ from her fathers?
focused on the egopractical applications of psychoanalytic theoryworked primarily with children
What is the central idea of Karen Horney's theory of personality development?
parental indifference that causes neurosis
for what key term is adler known?
birth ordersuperiority complexinferiority complex
What is the object relations theory?
paranoid schizoid positiondepressive positionobjects play a decisive role in the development of a subject and can be either part-objects or whole-objects
What did the ego psychologists differ with Freud on?
proposed theories that did not rely on sexual development
What did Anna Frued do her pioneering work on?
child analysis
What is the collectivist unconscious?
deepest level of the psyche containing inherited experiences of human and prehuman species.
Alfred Adler and Karen Horney claimed that human behavior is determined by what?
unhappy childhood
The majority of maslow's research would be characterized as what?
self actualization
What is a peak experience
escstatic states
The view that individuals must guide their lives by their own interpretation of events rather than by the beliefs of others is a fundamental principle of whose system?
Carl Rogers
Roger's clinical experience during the time he was developing his theory was with whom?
MaslowOtto Rank
The consequence of conditional positive regard is what?
child will become a healthy personality, fully functioning person, no repression
one of the strongest influences the humanistic systems exerted on psychology was what?
consciously and freely change
who initiated the positive psychology movement?
maslow, rogers
differentiate positive psychology from its roots in psychoanalysis and humanistic psychology?
what schools have retained their identity in US psychology from their introduction to the present day?
In Anna Freud's system, what are defense mechanisms?
Id, Ego, Superego
According to Anna Freud, how does the defense of the ego work?
signal anxiety
describe eriksons process of development
trust v mistrust: 0-18mo.autonomy v doubt and shame: 18mo.-3yrs.initiative v guilt: 3-6yrs.industry v inferiority: 6-12yrs.identity v role confusion: 12-20yrs.intimacy v isolation: 20-35yrs.generavity v stagnation: 35yrs-retirementego identity v despair: old age
Karen Horney viewed neurosis as what?
continuous process, sporadically occurring throughout one's lifetime
According to Erich Fromm, many people cannot embrace their freedom becuase?
escaping freedom through the use of escape mechanisms was the root of psychological conflicts
one thing that psychoanalysis and behaviorism share is what?
firmly opposed: definitions and approaches to problems
In murray's system, stories or interpretations projecting fantasy imagery onto an objective stimuli are called what?
Why isn't humanism more mainstream in psychology?
private practiceslittle research and few publicationsno graduate training programsill timed attacks on the psychoanalytic and behavioristic schools
Who is considered the spiritual father of humanistic psychology?
Compare and contrast humanistic psychology with psychoanalytic psychology
Humanistic psychology: applied to person's with normal mental health, enhance, not cure.Psychoanalysis: method of treatment
the basic human motivation in roger's system is?
This tendency is present in all organisms and can be defined as the motivation present in every life form to develop its potentials to the fullest extentSelf actualization
What is the basic message of humanistic psychology?
enhance the self
why is humanism sometimes referred to as the third force?
third alternative from psychoanalysis and behaviorism
What was the occasion of the start of cognitive psychology?
renewed focus on consciousness
Neisser's definition of cognitive uses what metaphor?
The computer metaphor.
What old school of psychology infuses modern psychology?
What is the Turing test?
test of a machines ability to demonstrate intelligence
What is phenomenological assessment?
attempts to quantify introspective reportsincrease objectivity and ability to do statistical analysis