History Exam 2010

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Wars And Impe Rialism

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exert influence over other people  
cause of imperialism
economic, political, religious, moral, cultural, military
-European nations compete for colonies
An economic system based on a free market, open competition, profit motive and private ownership of the means of production. Capitalism encourages private investment and business, compared to a government-controlled economy. Investors in these private companies (i.e. shareholders) also own the firms and are known as capitalists.
many countries scrambled for the colonies in Africa.
“Sun Never Set”
The citizens of the British empire always worked before the sun rose and until after the sun set.
the relation of a strong state toward a weaker state or territory that it protects and partly controls where local rulers were left in place but were expected to follow advice of European advisors on issues such as trade and missionary activity.
Sphere of influence
an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges
David Livingstone
he was an explorer and missionary, he crisscrossed Africa for thirty years and he opposed the slave trade
Henry Stanley
He is a journalist who found Dr. Livingston after many years and coined the phrase, “Dr. Livingston, I presume?”
Boer War
lasted from 1899-1902 involved bitter guerilla fighting and the British won in the end, but at great cost.
Sepoy Rebellion
Angry sepoys rose up against their British officers and it swept across northern and central India. After awhile the Bristish took over and ended it, but it left a bitter and fearful legacy
Balance of trade
the difference between how much a country imports and how much it exports
Trade surplus
exporting more products than the country has imported
Trade Deficit
buying more from the Chinese than China sold to them.
Opium War
A war between the Chinese and British soldiers about the importing and exporting of the opium drug.
Treaty Of Nanjing
When the British won they got an indemnity from the Chinese paying for all the damage they did during the war. They also got Hong Kong.
Taiping Rebellion
from 1850-1864-one of the most devastating peasant revolts in history. The taiping rebels wanted to end the Qing Dynasty, but after 14 years the government was able to crush the rebellion
Sina-Japanese War
between China and Japan and it ended in disaster for China, but Japan got Taiwan.
open door policy
a policy to keep Chinese trade open to everyone on an equal basis
Boxer rebellion
in 1899, a group of Chinese formed a secret society. They were called boxers because they all did martial arts. They wanted to drive out the "foreign devils" that were polluting the land. In 1900 they attacked foreigners across China. The force that the Western powers and Japan brought upon the Boxers crushed them and rescued foreigners from Beijing.
Sun Yixian
a passionate spokesman for the Chinese republic, he organized the Revolutionary Alliance to rebuild China on "Three Principles of the people."
Queen Victoria
The great symbol of british life and her reign was the longest in British history.
Hong Kong
the city that the British took over after the opium war and it is now the capitol city of China.
Matthew Perry
Commander of American ships, he sailed to Tokyo Bay. He carried a letter from Milliard Fillmore that demanded japan to open their ports to diplomatic and commercial exchange.
Meiji Restoration Diet
a diet was formed and made up of one elected house and one appointed by the emperor.
Fisrt Sino-Japanese War
In 1894, competition between China and Japan in Korea led to the war and Japan won easily, surprising China and the West.
Russo-Japanese War
Japan's armies defeated Russian troops in Manchuria, and its navy destroyed almost an entire Russian fleet. For the first time in history an Asian power defeated a European power.
Europe, Germany, Russia, France, Austro-Hungary, Italy, and Britain
Triple Entente
France, Britain, and Russia
Triple Alliance
Germany, Italy, and Austro-Hungary
the glorification of the military
Alsace and Lorraine
Freanch lost Alsace and Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian war and wanted to fight for it back.
a policy of supporting neither side in a war
Austria gave Serbia a final set of demands that said Serbia must end all anti-Austrian agitation and punish any Serbian official involved in the murder plot in order to keep out of war.
preparing the military for war
France-Prussian War
Prussia beat the French and took control of ALsace and Lorraine
the place where Archduke Feridnand and his wife were assassinated by Gavrillo Princip who was part of the Black Hand
Britain, Russia, France
Central Powers
Germany, Austro-Hungary, Italy, Turkish Empire
Austria and Germany's target and the ultimatum was given to them
Francis Ferdinand
The archduke of Austria and he was assassinated by Gavrillo Princip on June 28, 1914
Black hand
The secret society that Gavrillo Princip belonged to
Gavrillo Princip
Francis Ferdinand's assassin
The Schleiffen Plan
Germany’s military plan to defeat France and Russia, “Knock out blow” aimed at France first, Avoid French defences by invasion of Belgium, Germans thought Britain would not intervene, it failed miserably
Kaiser Wilhelm
The ruler of Germany
a deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other
Germany used large gas-filled balloons to bomb the English coast
German submarine
group of merchant ships protected by warships
a vital strait connecting the Black Sea and the mediterranean
Trench warfare
The soldiers suffered greatly living in the trenches during WW1
Ottoman Turks
a desirable ally who became part of the Central powers (Arabia)
Total war
channeling of a nation's entire resources into the war effort.
"The Draft"
raw materials needed to make military supplies
off the coast of Ireland, Lusitania was a big shipwreck that killed about 1200 passengers
the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause
horrible acts committed against innocent people
Fourteen Points
a list of Wilson's terms for resolving war and making peace
putting down weapons, ceasing fire
Versailles Treaty
In June 1919 the Alllies ordered the new German Republic to sign the treaty they had drawn up at the Palace of Versailles. The treaty forced Germany to assume full blame for causing the war and imposed huge reparations that would burden an already damaged Germany.
Big Four Nations
Britain, Italy, France, United States
Big Four people
David Lloyd-George (Britain), Vittorio Orlando(Italy), george Clemenceau (France), Woodrow Wilson (US)
Poppy flower
contains opium
The king of Russia
Karl Marx
cooriginator of communism
followed Marxism
The hungry, war-worried Russians
using fake money for war reparations
Amritsar massacre
a mass murder in India in 1919
the poeple who worked in unclean areas of India were said to be polluted peopels and were looked down upon and called the untouchables(members of the lowest caste)
to refuse to buy
led a successful and peaceful revolution in India against British rule.
salt March
Protest led by Gandhi in India
Long March
Jiang Jieshi led the Long March becasue he was determined to destroy the "red bandits" or communists
Mao Zedong
ruler of communism in China
follwing the communist beliefs of Karl Marx
Japan leader from 1926 to 1989
Caste System
India's social scale
Taj Mahal
a mausoleum in India
maginot Line
massive fortifications built by France
the reduction of armed forces and weapons
Italy'sfascist  ruler during the war
IL Dulce
Mussolin's nickname
The ruler of Germany
Hitler's nickname
Black shirts
Mussolini's army
Brown shirts
Hitler's army
March on Rome
tens of thousands of fascists swarmed towards the capital and Victor Emmanuel II asked Mussolini to form a government as Prime Minister
any centralized, authoritarian government that is not communist whose policies glorify the state over the individual and are destructive to basic human rights.
a system of brutal labor camps
the belief that there is no god.
the ruler of the Soviet Union during WW1
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Great Purge
 series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin in 1936–1938.
making a nationality's culture more ethnically Russian
Germany's ruler
Third Reich
official name of the Nazi party for its regime in Germany; held power from 1933-1945
Hitler's secret police
Nuremburg trials
laws approved by the nazi Party in 1935, depriving Jews of German citizenship and taking some rights away from them
the night of broken glass when Hitler and his people burned synogaugues and destroyed houses and killed many poeple
Great Depression
a painful time of global economic collapse, starting in 1929 and lasting until about 1939
using fake money for war reparations
Neville Chamberlain
 British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940
policy of giving in to an aggresor's demands in order to keep the peace
opposition to all war
Neautrality acts
a series of acts passed by the U.S. Congress from 1935 to 1939 that aimed to keep the U.S. from becoming involved in WW11
Axis powers
group of countries led by Germany, Italy and Japan that fought the Allies in World War II
Allied POwers
France, U.S., Britain 
a region of western Czechoslovakia
union of Austria and Germany
Nazi-Soviet Pact
bound Hitler to stalin to peaceful relations
"lightning war"
german air force
British sent boats to the beaches of Dunkirk in order to rescue troops
where the Germans set up a puppet state
Gneral Rommel
one of Hitler's commanders that he sent to North Africa when the british army repulsed invaders
another name for Luftwaffe
when the Nazis massacred some six million Jews
The Soviets were trying to siege Leningrad from the Germans
concentration camps
detention centers for civilians considered enemies of the state
the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group
President Roosevelt
U.S. president during WWII and part of the Big three
Winston Churchill
antisocialist and defender of the british empire
Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941 when japan bombed hawaii to force the U.S. into war
June 6, 1944 when the Allies launched a surprise invasion on Normandy in France
Aircraft carriers
ships that transport aircraft and accommodate the take-off and landing of airplanes
Yalta Conference
the three leaders agreed that the Soviet Union would enter the war against japan within three months of Germany's surrender
United Nations
 a peace organization that plays a greater role in world affairs than the League of Nations
Cold War
a state of tension and hostility between nations aligned with the United States on one side and The Soviet union on the other, without armed conflict between the major rivals
truman Doctrine
rooted in the idea of containment, limiting communism to the areas already under Soviet-control
Marshall Plan
The U.S. offered a major aid package to Europe
Berlin Airlift
also known as Operation Vittles carried supplies to East germany
North Atlantic Treaty Organization involved the U.S. Canada and ten other countries. they pledged to help one another if any of them were attacked.
Warsaw Pact
The Soviet UNion's military alliance with parts of East Europe
VE Day
Victory in Europe on May 8, 1945 right after Germany surrendered the day before
VJ Day
victory in Japan on September 2 soon after Hiroshima and Nagosaki on August 6 and 8
nations stronger than other powerful nations
President reagan
launched a program to build a "Star Wars" missile defense against nuclear attack.
ABM missiles
missiles that could shoot down other missiles from hostile countries
relaxation of tensions
Fidel castro
Cuban leader who ruled during the Cuban Missile Crisis and organized an armed rebellion against the corrupt dictator who then ruled CUba
Nikita Khrushchev
The new Soviet leader after STalin and he maintained the communist party, but closed prison camps
Leonid Brezhnev
Khrshchev's successor
policy toward communist countries
Cuban Missile Crisis
confrontation between the Soviet Union, Cuba and the United States in October 1962, during the Cold War
Konrad Adenauer
from 1949 to 1963 he was West Germany's chancellor
Korean War
North Korea's invasion of South Korea brought about a United Nations' "police action" against the aggressors
38th parallel
the dividing line of North and SOuth Korea
Pusan Perimeter
United Nations forces stopped North Korean troops from advancing along this line
demilitarized zone- and area with no military forces
Ho Chi Minh
a nationalist and communist who had fought the Japanese
it was divided during the Cold War
small groups of loosely organized soldiers making surprise raids
Domino theory
the view that a communist victory in South vietnam would cause noncommunist governments across Sotheast Asia to fall to coommunism, like a row of dominoes
Viet Cong
the National Liberation Front
Tet Offensive
guerilla forces attacked AMerican and south vietnamese in all cities across the south this marked a turning point in public opinion in the UNited States
Khmer Rouge
a force of Cambodian communist guerillas
Pol Pot
led the Khmer Rouge and unleashed a reign of terror
the Soviet's energetic new leader in 1985