HIST 121 Final Exam

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History 121 Final Exam

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Aztec Empire
Major state that developed in what is now Mexico in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; dominated by the seminomadic Mexica, who had migrated from northern Mexico
territorial state that emerged by the fifteenth century in southern Nigeria; ruled by a warrior king who consolidated his state through widespread conquest
Christopher Colombus
Genoese mariner commissioned by Spain to search for a new trading route to Asia; in 1492 he founded America instead
Seizure of Constantinople
1453 = The capital and only outpost left of the Byzantine empire, fell to the Ottoman army of Sultan Mehmed II "the conquerer," marked the end of the Christian Byzantine empire
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer whose 1497-1498 voyage was the first European venture to reach India by circling the tip of South Africa
Gunpowder Revolution
1300 - 1650 = in which weapons that utilized gunpowder to fire projectiles gained a prominence in militaries throughout the world.  These gunpowder weapons gave those possessing them a distinct advantage over those without them, aiding in the frowth of numerous empires.
Hundred Years' War
1337-1453: Major conflict between France and England over rival claims to territory in France; The two states' need to finance the war helped encourage their administrative development.
Inca Empire
The Western Hemisphere's largest imperial state in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries; built by a relatively small community of Quechua-speaking people (the Inca), the empire stretched some 2,500 miles along the Andes Mountains, which run nearly the entire length of the west coast of South America, and contained perhaps 10 million subjects
Muslim port city that came to prominence on the waterway between Sumatra and Malaya in the fifteenth century C.E.; it was the springboard for the spread of a syncretic form of Islam throughout the region
seminomadic people of northern Mexico who by 1325 had established themselves on a small island in Lake Texcoco, were they built their capital city, Tenochtitlan; the MExica were the central architects of the Aztec Empire
Ming Dynasty
1368-1644 = chinese dynasty that succeeded the Yuan dynasty of the Mongols; noted for its return to traditional Chinese ways and restoration of the land after the destructiveness of the Mongols
Mughal Empire
One of the most successful empires of India, a state founded by an Islamized Turkic group that invaded India in 1526; the Mughals' rule was noted for their efforts to create partnerships between Hindus and Muslims
Ottoman Empire
Major Islamic state centered on Anatolia that came to include Balkans, the Near East, and much of North Africa
Paleolithic persistence
the continuance of gathering and hunting societies in substantial areas of the world despite millenia of agricultural advance
European Renaissance
1350 - 1500 = A "rebirth" of classical learning that is most often associated with the cultural blossoming of Italy that included not just a rediscovery of Greek learning but also major developments in art, as well as growing secularism in society
Safavid Empire
Major Turkic empire of Persia founded in the early sixteenth century, notable for its efforts to convert its populace to Shia Islam
Songhay Empire
Major Islamic of West Africa that formed in the second half of the fifteenth century.
Turkic warrior, (1336-1405) also known as Tamerlane, who effort to restore the Mongol Empire devastated much of Persia, Russia, and India
Zheng He
Great Chinese admiral (1371-1433) who commanded a fleet of more than 300 ships in a series of voyages of contact and exploration that began in 1405
The most famous emperor of India's Mughal Empire (1556-1605); his poilicies are noted for their efforts at religious tolerance and inclusion
Mughal emperor (1658-1707) who reversed his predecessors' policies of religious tolerance and attempted to impose Islamic supremacy 
Columbian Exchange
The massive transatlantic interaction and exchange between the Americas and Afro-Eurasia that began in the period of European exploration and colonization
Constantinople, 1453
Constantinople, the capital and almost only outpost left of the Byzantine Empire, fell to the army of the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror" in 1453, an even that marked the end of Christian Byzantium
Spaniards born in the Americas
The "Great Dying"
term used to describe the devastating demographic impact of European-borne epidemic diseases on the Americas
An economic theory that argues that governments best serve their states' economic interests by encouraging exports and accumulating bullion
Literally "mixed" a term used to describe mixed race population of Spanish colonial societies in the Americas
Mughal Empire
One of the most successful empires of India, a state founded by Muslim Turks who invaded India in 1526; their rule was noted for efforts to create partnerships between Hindus and Muslims
term commonly used for people of mixed African and European blood
In the Spanish colonies of Latin America, the term used to refer to people who had been born in Spain; they claimed superiority over Spaniards born in the Americas
Plantation Complex
Agricultural system based on African slavery that was used in Brazil, the Caribbean, and the southern colones of North America
Qing Dynasty
Ruling dynasty of China from 1644 to 1912; the Qing rules were originally from Manchuria, which had conquered China
Settler Colonies
Colonies in which the colonizing people settled in large numbers, rather than simply spending relatively small numbers to exploit the region; particularly noteworthy in the case of the British colonies in North America
African Diaspora
name given to the spread of African peoples across the Atlantic via the salve trade
British/Dutch East India Companies
Private trading companies chartered by the governments of England and the Netherlands around 1600; they were given monopolies on Indian Ocean Trade, including the right to make war and to rule conquered peoples
Feudal lords of Japan who rules with virtual independence thanks to their bands of samurai warriors
Indian Ocean commercial network
The massive, interconnected web of commerce in premodern times between the lands that bordered on the Indian Ocean (including East Africa, India, and Southeast Asia); the network was badly disrupted by Portuguese intrusion beginning around 1500
Little Ice Age
A period of cooling temperatures and harsh winters that lasted for much of the early modern era
Capital of the Spanish phillipines and a major multicultural trade city that already had a population of more than 40,000 by 1600.
Middle Passage
Name commonly given to the journey across the Atlantic undertaken by African slaves being shipped to the Americas
City that devloped high in the Andes (in present-day Bolivia) at the site of the world's largest silver mine and that became the largest city in the Americas, with a population of some 160,000 in the 1570s.
the warrior elite of medieval Japan
In Japan, a supreme military commander
"Silver Drain"
Term often used, along with "specie drain," to describe the siphoning of money from Europe to pay for the luxury products of the East, a process exacerbated by the fact that Europe had few trade goods that were desirable in Eastern markets; eventually, the bulk of the world's silver supply made it way to China
"Soft Gold"
Nickname used in the early modern period for animals furs, highly valued for their warmth and as symbols of elite status; in several regions, the fur trade generated massive wealth for those engaged in it
Spanish Phillipines
An archipelago of Pacific Islands colonized b Spain in a relatively bloodless process that extended for the century or so after 1565, a process accompanied by a major effort at evangelization; the Spanish named them the Phillipine Islands in honor of King Philip II of Spain
Tokugawa Shogunate
Military rulers of Japan who successfully unified Japanpolitically by the early seventeenth century and established "closed door" policy toward European encroachments
Trading Post Empire
Form of Imperial dominance based on control of trade rather than on control of subject peoples
Catholic Counter-Reformation
An internal reform of the Catholic Church in the sixteenth century; thanks especially to the work of the Council of Trent (1545-1563), Catholic leaders clarified doctrine, corrected abuses and corruption, and put a new emphasis on education and accountability
Council of Trent
The main instrument of the Catholic Counter-Reformation (1545-1563), at which the Catholic Church clarified doctrine and corrected abuses
Charles Darwin
Highly influential English biologist (1809-1882) whose theory of natural selection continues to be seen by many as a threat to revealed religious truth
Belief in a divine being who created the cosmos but who does not intervene directly in human affairs
European Enlightenment
European intellectual movement of the eighteenth century that applied the lessons of the Scientific Revolution to human affairs and was noted for its commitment to open-mindedness and inquiry and the belief that knowledge could transform human society.
Sigmund Freud
Austrian doctor and the father of modern psychoanalysis (1856-1939); his theories about the operation of the human mind and emotions remain influential today
The Protestant minority in France
Jesuits in China
Series of Jesuit missionaries in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries who, inspired by the work of Matteo Ricci, made extraordinary efforts to understand and become a part of Chinese culture in their efforts to convert the Chinese elite, although with limited success
Martin Luther
German priest and theologian (1483-1546) who inaugurated the Protestant Reformation movement in Europe
Karl Marx
German philosopher (1818-1883) whose view of human history as a class struggle, formed the basis of socialism
Guru Nanak
The founder of Sikhism
Isaac Newton
English natural scientist (1643-1727) whose formulation of the laws of motion and mechanics is regarded as the culmination of the Scientific Revolution
Ninety-five Theses
List of ninety-five debating points about the abuses of the Church, posted by Martin Luther on the door of a church in Wittenberg in 1517; the Church's strong reaction eventually drove Luther to separate from Catholic Christianity
Protestant Reformation
Massive schism within Christianity that had its formal beginning in 1517 with the German priest Martin Luther; while the leaders of the movement claimed that they sought to "reform" a Church that had fallen from biblical practice, in reality the movement was radically innovative in its challenge to Church authority and its endorsement of salvation "by faith alone"
Scientific Revolution
Great European intellectual and cultural transformation that was based on the principles of the scientific method.
Religious tradition of northern India founded by Guru Nanak ca. 1500; combines elements of Hinduism and Islam and proclaims the brotherhood of all humans and the equality of men and women
Thirty Years' War
Highly destructive war (1618–1648) that eventually included most of Europe; fought for the most part between Protestants and Catholics, the conflict ended with the Peace of Westphalia (1648).
Wahhabi Islam
Major Islamic movement led by the Muslim theologian Abd al-Wahhab (1703–1792) that advocated an austere lifestyle and strict adherence to the sharia (Islamic law
Abolitionist Movement
An international movement that between approximately 1780 and 1890 succeeded in condemning slavery as morally repugnant and abolishing it in much of the world; the movement was especially prominent in Britain and the United States.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Document drawn up by the French National Assembly in 1789 that proclaimed the equal rights of all men; the declaration ideologically launched the French Revolution.
Estates General
French representative assembly called into session by Louis XVI to address pressing problems and out of which the French Revolution emerged; the three estates were the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners.
French Revolution
Massive dislocation of French society (1789–1815) that overthrew the monarchy, destroyed most of the French aristocracy, and launched radical reforms of society that were lost again, though only in part, under Napoleon’s imperial rule and after the restoration of the monarchy
Haitian Revolution
The only fully successful slave rebellion in world history; the uprising in the French Caribbean colony of Saint Domingue (later renamed Haiti) was sparked by the French Revolution and led to the establishment of an independent state after a long and bloody war (1791–1804).
Latin American Revolutions
Series of risings in the Spanish colonies of Latin America (1810–1826) that established the independence of new states from Spanish rule but that for the most part retained the privileges of the elites despite efforts at more radical social rebellion by the lower classes.
Toussaint Louverture
First leader of the Haitian Revolution, a former slave (1743–1803) who wrote the first constitution of Haiti and served as the first governor of the newly independent state
Maternal Feminism
Movement that claimed that women have value in society not because of an abstract notion of equality but because women have a distinctive and vital role as mothers; its exponents argued that women have the right to intervene in civil and political life because of their duty to watch over the future of their children
Napoleon Bonaparte
French head of state from 1799 until his abdication in 1814 (and again briefly in 1815); Napoleon preserved much of the French Revolution under an autocratic system and was responsible for the spread of revolutionary ideals through his conquest of much of Europe.
A clearly defined territory whose people have a sense of common identity and destiny, thanks to ties of blood, culture, language, or common experience.
The focusing of citizens’ loyalty on the notion that they are part of a “nation” with a unique culture, territory, and destiny; first became a prominent element of political culture in the nineteenth century.
North American Revolution
Successful rebellion conducted by the colonists of parts of North America (not Canada) against British rule (1775–1787); a conservative revolution whose success assured property rights but established republican government in place of monarchy.
The Terror
Term used to describe the revolutionary violence in France in 1793–1794, when radicals under the leadership of Maximilien Robespierre executed tens of thousands of people deemed enemies of the revolution.
Third Estate
: In prerevolutionary France, the term used for the 98 percent of the population that was neither clerical nor noble, and for their representatives at the Estates General; in 1789, the Third Estate declared itself a National Assembly and launched the French Revolution
Term that Karl Marx used to describe the owners of industrial capital; originally meant “townspeople.” 
British Royal Society
Association of scientists established in England in 1660 that was dedicated to the promotion of “useful knowledge.” 
Crimean War
Major international conflict (1854–1856) in which British and French forces defeated Russia; the defeat prompted reforms within Russia.
Dependent Development
Term used to describe Latin America’s economic growth in the nineteenth century, which was largely financed by foreign capital and dependent on European and North American prosperity and decisions.
The Duma
The elected representative assembly grudgingly created in Russia by Tsar Nicholas II in response to the 1905 revolution.
Indian Cotton Textiles
For much of the eighteenth century, well-made and inexpensive cotton textiles from India flooded Western markets; the competition stimulated the British textile industry to industrialize, which led to the eventual destruction of the Indian textile market both in Europe and in India.
Industrial Revolution
Period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times, propelling Western Europe into a position of global dominance
Labour Party
British working-class political party established in the 1890s and dedicated to reforms and a peaceful transition to socialism, in time providing a viable alternative to the revolutionary emphasis of Marxism
Latin American export boom
Large-scale increase in Latin American exports (mostly raw materials and foodstuffs) to industrializing countries in the second half of the nineteenth century, made possible by major improvements in shipping; the boom mostly benefited the upper and middle classes.
Pen name of Russian Bolshevik Vladimir Ulyanov (1870–1924), who was the main leader of the Russian Revolution of 1917
lower middle class
Social stratum that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century and that consisted of people employed in the service sector as clerks, salespeople, secretaries, police officers, and the like; by 1900, this group comprised about 20 percent of Britain’s population.
Karl Marx
The most influential proponent of socialism, Marx (1818–1883) was a German expatriate in England who advocated working-class revolution as the key to creating an ideal communist future.
Middle-class value
Belief system typical of the middle class that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century; it emphasized thrift, hard work, rigid moral behavior, cleanliness, and “respectability.” 
Peter The Great 
Tsar of Russia (r. 1689–1725) who attempted a massive reform of Russian society in an effort to catch up with the states of Western Europe.
Late-nineteenth-century American political movement that denounced corporate interests of all kinds.
American political movement in the period around 1900 that advocated reform measures to correct the ills of industrialization.
Term that Karl Marx used to describe the industrial working class; originally used in ancient Rome to describe the poorest part of the urban population
Russian Revolution of 1905
Spontaneous rebellion that erupted in Russia after the country’s defeat at the hands of Japan in 1905; the revolution was suppressed, but it forced the government to make substantial reforms.
Steam Engine
Mechanical device in which the steam from heated water builds up pressure to drive a piston, rather than relying on human or animal muscle power; the introduction of the steam engine allowed a hitherto unimagined increase in productivity and made the Industrial Revolution possible.
Boxer Rebellion
Rising of Chinese militia organizations in 1900 in which large numbers of Europeans and Chinese Christians were killed.
China, 1911
The collapse of China’s imperial order, officially at the hands of organized revolutionaries but for the most part under the weight of the troubles that had overwhelmed the government for the previous half-century.
Feudal lords of Japan who retained substantial autonomy under the Tokugawa shogunate and only lost their social preeminence in the Meiji restoration. 
Hong Xiuquan
Chinese religious leader (1814–1864) who sparked the Taiping Uprising and won millions to his unique form of Christianity, according to which he himself was the younger brother of Jesus, sent to establish a “heavenly kingdom of great peace” on earth
Informal Empire
Term commonly used to describe areas that were dominated by Western powers in the nineteenth century but that retained their own governments and a measure of independence, e.g., Latin America and China.
Meiji Restoration
The overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan in 1868, restoring power at long last to the emperor Meiji
Matthew Perry
U.S. navy commodore who in 1853 presented the ultimatum that led Japan to open itself to more normal relations with the outside world.
Opium Wars
Two wars fought between Western powers and China (1839–1842 and 1856–1858) after China tried to restrict the importation of foreign goods, especially opium; China lost both wars and was forced to make major concessions.
Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905
Ending in a Japanese victory, this war established Japan as a formidable military competitor in East Asia and precipitated the Russian Revolution of 1905.
Armed retainers of the Japanese feudal lords, famed for their martial skills and loyalty; in the Tokugawa shogunate, the samurai gradually became an administrative elite, but they did not lose their special privileges until the Meiji restoration
Self-strengthening movement
China’s program of internal reform in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application of Confucian principles and limited borrowing from the West.
"The sick man of Europe"
Western Europe’s unkind nickname for the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a name based on the sultans’ inability to prevent Western takeover of many regions and to deal with internal problems; it fails to recognize serious reform efforts in the Ottoman state during this period.
Social Darwinism
An application of the concept of “survival of the fittest” to human history in the nineteenth century.
Taiping Uprising
Massive Chinese rebellion that devastated much of the country between 1850 and 1864; it was based on the millenarian teachings of Hong Xiuquan. 
Tanzimat Reforms
Important reform measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1839; the term “Tanzimat” means “reorgani-zation.” 
Tokugawa Shogunate
Rulers of Japan from 1600 to 1868. 
Unequal Treaties
Series of nineteenth-century treaties in which China made major concessions to Western powers.
Young Ottomans
Group of would-be reformers in the mid-nineteenth-century Ottoman Empire that included lower-level officials, military officers, and writers; they urged the extension of Westernizing reforms to the political system.
Young Turks
: Movement of Turkish military and civilian elites that developed ca. 1900, eventually bringing down the Ottoman Empire.
The Armenian Genocide
The systematic annihlation of 1.5 million indegenous Armenian population of Eastern Turkey by the Committee of Union and Progress the dominant Young Turk political party. The Genocide aimed at homogenization of Anatolia and the uprooting of the Armenian Question
Africanization of Christianity
Process that occurred in non-Muslim Africa, where millions who were converted to Christianity sought to maintain older traditions alongside new Christian ideas; many converts continued using protective charms and medicines and consulting local medicine men, and many continued to believe in their old gods and spirits.
Afrikaans term literally meaning “aparthood”; the system that developed in South Africa of strictly limiting the social and political integration of whites and blacks.
Cash-crop agriculture 
Agricultural production, often on a large scale, of crops for sale in the market, rather than for consumption by the farmers themselves.
Colonial Racism
pattern of European racism in their Asian and African colonies that created a great racial divide between Europeans and the natives, and limited native access to education and the civil service, based especially on pseudo-scientific notions of naturally superior and inferior races
Colonial Tribalism
A European tendency, especially in African colonies, to identify and sometimes invent distinct “tribes” that had often not existed before, reinforcing European notions that African societies were primitive.
Congo Free State/Leopold II
Leopold II was king of Belgium from 1865 to 1909; his rule as private owner of the Congo Free State during much of that time is typically held up as the worst abuse of Europe’s second wave of colonization, resulting as it did in millions of deaths.
Cultivation System
System of forced labor used in the Netherlands East Indies in the nineteenth century; peasants were required to cultivate at least 20 percent of their land in cash crops, such as sugar or coffee, for sale at low and fixed prices to government contractors, who then earned enormous profits from further sale of the crops.
A term with its roots in European colonialism and imperialism that emphasizes viewing the world from a European perspective. Despite being influence by other cultures, it often seeks to show the superiority of Western customs over those of analagous cultures.
Indian Rebellion, 1857-1858
Massive uprising of much of India against British rule; also called the Indian Mutiny or the Sepoy Mutiny from the fact that the rebellion first broke out among Indian troops in British employ.
Informal Empire
Term commonly used to describe areas such as Latin America and China that were dominated by Western powers in the nineteenth century but that retained their own governments and a measure of independence.
Scramble for Africa
Name used for the process of the European countries’ partition of the continent of Africa between themselves in the period 1875–1900.
Western-educated Elite
The main beneficiaries in Asian and African lands colonized by Western powers; schooled in the imperial power’s language and practices, they moved into their country’s professional classes but ultimately led anticolonial movements as they grew discouraged by their inability to win equal status to the colonizers.
European Economic Community
: The EEC (also known as the Common Market) was an alliance formed by Italy, France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg in 1957 and dedicated to developing common trade policies and reduced tariffs; it gradually developed into the European Union.
European Union
The final step in a series of arrangements to increase cooperation between European states in the wake of World War II; the EU was formally established in 1994, and twelve of its members adopted a common currency in 2002.
ideology marked by its intense nationalism and authoritarianism; its name is derived from the fasces that were the symbol of magistrates in ancient Rome
Fourteen Points
Plan of U.S. president Woodrow Wilson to establish lasting peace at the end of World War I; although Wilson’s views were popular in Europe, his vision largely failed.
Franco-Prussian War
German war with France (1870–1871) that ended with the defeat of France and the unification of Germany into a single state under Prussian rule.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the Austrian throne whose assassination by a Serbian nationalist on June 28, 1914, was the spark that ignited World War I.
Great Depression
Worldwide economic depression that began in 1929 with the New York stock market crash and continued in many areas until the outbreak of World War II.
Great War
Name originally given to the First World War (1914–1918).
Adolf Hitler
Leader of the German Nazi Party (1889–1945) and Germany’s head of state from 1933 until his death.
Name commonly used for the Nazi genocide of Jews and other “undesirables” in German society; Jews themselves prefer the term Shoah, which means “catastrophe,” rather than Holocaust (“offering” or “sacrifice”).
Literally, “crystal night”; name given to the night of November 9, 1938, when Nazi-led gangs smashed and looted Jewish shops throughout Germany. 
League of Nations
International peacekeeping organization created after World War I; first proposed by U.S. president Woodrow Wilson as part of his Fourteen Points.
Marshall Plan
Huge U.S. government initiative to aid in the post–World War II restoration of Europe that was masterminded by U.S. secretary of state George Marshall and put into effect in 1947
Benito Mussolini
leader of the Italian fascist party (1883–1945) who came to power in 1922
Rape of Nanjing
The Japanese army’s systematic killing, mutilation, and rape of the Chinese civilian population of Nanjing in 1938. 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military and political alliance founded in 1949 that committed the United States to the defense of Europe in the event of Soviet aggression
Nazi Germany
Germany as ruled by Hitler and the Nazi Party from 1933 to 1945, a fascist state dedicated to extreme nationalism, territorial expansion, and the purification of the German state.
Nazi Party
Properly known as the National Socialist Democratic Workers’ Party, the Nazi party was founded in Germany shortly after World War I and advocated a strongly authoritarian and nationalist regime based on notions of racial superiority.
New Deal
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
Nuremberg Laws
Series of laws passed by the Nazi-dominated German parliament in 1935 that forbade sexual relations between Jews and other Germans and mandated that Jews identify themselves in public by wearing the Star of David.
Revolutionary Right (Japan)
Also known as Radical Nationalism, this was a movement in Japanese political life ca. 1930–1945 that was marked by extreme nationalism, a commitment to elite leadership focused around the emperor, and dedication to foreign expansion.
Total War
: War that requires each country involved to mobilize its entire population in the effort to defeat the enemy.
Treaty of Versailles
1919 treaty that officially ended World War I; the immense penalties it placed on Germany are regarded as one of the causes of World War II
Triple Alliance
An alliance consisting of Germany, Austria, and Italy that was one of the two rival European alliances on the eve of World War I
Triple Etente
An alliance consisting of Russia, France, and Britain that was one of the two rival European alliances on the eve of World War I.
United Nations
International peacekeeping organization and forum for international opinion, established in 1945.
Weimar Republic
The weak government that replaced the German imperial state at the end of World War I; its failure to take strong action against war reparations and the Great Depression provided an opportunity for the Nazi Party’s rise to power.
Woodrow Wilson
President of the United States from 1913 to 1921 who was especially noted for his idealistic approach to the end of World War I, which included advocacy of his Fourteen Points intended to regulate future international dealings and a League of Nations to enforce a new international order. Although his vision largely failed, Wilson was widely respected for his views.
World War I
The “Great War” (1914–1918), in essence a European civil war with global implications that was marked by massive casualties, the expansion of offensive military technology beyond tactics and means of defense, and a great deal of disillusionment with the whole idea of “progress.” 
World War II in Asia
A struggle essentially to halt Japanese imperial expansion in Asia, fought by the Japanese against primarily Chinese and American foes.
World War II in Europe
A struggle essentially to halt German imperial expansion in Europe, fought by a coalition of allies that included Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States.  
Berlin Wall
Wall constructed by East German authorities in 1961 to seal off East Berlin from the West; it was breached on November 9, 1989.
Russian revolutionary party led by Vladimir Lenin and later renamed the Communist Party; the name “Bolshevik” means “the majority.” 
Building Socialism
Euphemistic expression for the often-forcible transformation of society when a communist regime came to power in a state.
Fidel Castro
Revolutionary leader of Cuba from 1959 to 2008 who gradually turned to Soviet communism and engendered some of the worst crises of the cold war
Chinese Revolution
Long revolutionary process in the period 1912–1949 that began with the overthrow of the Chinese imperial system and ended with the triumph of the Communist Party under the leadership of Mao Zedong.
Cold War
Political and ideological state of near-war between the Western world and the communist world that lasted from 1946 to 1991
: Process of rural reform undertaken by the communist leadership of both the USSR and China in which private property rights were abolished and peasants were forced onto larger and more industrialized farms to work and share the proceeds as a community rather than as individuals.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Major standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba; the confrontation ended in compromise, with the USSR removing its missiles in exchange for the United States agreeing not to invade Cuba.
Cultural Revolution
China’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution was a massive campaign launched by Mao Zedong in the mid-1960s to combat the capitalist tendencies that he believed reached into even the highest ranks of the Communist Party; the campaign threw China into chaos.
Deng Xiaoping
Leader of China from 1976 to 1997 whose reforms essentially dismantled the communist elements of the Chinese economy
Mikhail Gorbachev’s policy of “openness,” which allowed greater cultural and intellectual freedom and ended most censorship of the media; the result was a burst of awareness of the problems and corruption of the Soviet system.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991 whose efforts to reform the USSR led to its collapse. 
Great Leap Forward
Major Chinese initiative (1958–1960) led by Mao Zedong that was intended to promote small-scale industrialization and increase knowledge of technology; in reality, it caused a major crisis and exacerbated the impact of a devastating famine.
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
Mao Zedong’s great effort in the mid-1960s to weed out capitalist tendencies that he believed had developed in China.
Great Purges
Also called the Terror, the Great Purges of the late 1930s were a massive attempt to cleanse the Soviet Union of supposed “enemies of the people”; nearly a million people were executed between 1936 and 1941, and 4 million or 5 million more were sentenced to forced labor in the gulag.
Acronym for the Soviet government agency that administered forced labor camps
The Chinese Nationalist Party led by Chiang Kai-shek from 1928 until its overthrow by the communists in 1949. 
Nikita Khrushchev
Leader of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964
Adopted name of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (1870–1924), the main leader of Russia’s communist revolution and head of the Soviet state from 1917 until his death.
Mao Zedong
 Chairman of China’s Communist Party and de facto ruler of China from 1949 until his death in 1976
Wave of anticommunist fear and persecution that took place in the United States in the 1950s
Natinoal Security State
Form of government that arose in the United States in response to the cold war and in which defense and intelligence agencies gained great power and power in general came to be focused in the executive branch.
Bold economic program launched in 1987 by Mikhail Gorbachev with the intention of freeing up Soviet industry and businesses
Russian Revolution 
Massive revolutionary upheaval in 1917 that overthrew the Romanov dynasty in Russia and ended with the seizure of power by communists under the leadership of Lenin.
Name assumed by Joseph Vissarionovich Jugashvili (1878–1953), leader of the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death; “Stalin” means “made of steel.” 
Warsaw Pact
alliance of the USSR and the communist states of Eastern Europe during the cold war.
African National Congress
South African political party established in 1912 by elite Africans who sought to win full acceptance in colonial society; it only gradually became a popular movement that came to control the government in 1994.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
Founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey (1881–1938); as military commander and leader of the Turkish national movement, he made Turkey into a secular state.
Black Consciousness 
South African movement that sought to foster pride, unity, and political awareness among the country’s African majority and often resorted to violent protest against white minority rule.
Also known as Afrikaners, the sector of the white population of South Africa that was descended from early Dutch settlers
Process in which many African and Asian states won their independence from Western colonial rule, in most cases by negotiated settlement with gradual political reforms and a program of investment rather than through military confrontation
Democracy in Africa
A subject of debate among scholars, the democracies established in the wake of decolonization in Africa proved to be fragile and often fell to military coups or were taken over by single-party authoritarian systems; Africa’s initial rejection of democracy has sometimes been taken as a sign that Africans were not ready for democratic politics or that traditional African culture did not support it
Economic development
A process of growth or increasing production and the distribution of the proceeds of that growth to raise living standards; nearly universal desire for economic development in the second half of the twentieth century reflected a central belief that poverty was no longer inevitable.
Mohandas Gandhi
Usually referred to by his soubriquet “Mahatma” (Great Soul), Gandhi (1869–1948) was a political leader and the undoubted spiritual leader of the Indian drive for independence from Great Britain.
Indian National Congress
Organization established in 1885 by Western-educated elite Indians in an effort to win a voice in the governance of India; over time, the INC became a major popular movement that won India’s independence from Britain.
Muhammad Aku Jinnah
Leader of India’s All-India Muslim League and first president of the breakaway state of Pakistan (1876–1948
Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini 
Important Shia ayattolah (advanced scholar of Islamic law and religion) who became the leader of Iran’s Islamic revolution and ruled Iran from 1979 until his death in 1989
Nelson Mandela
South African nationalist (b. 1918) and leader of the African National Congress who was imprisoned for twenty-seven years on charges of treason, sabotage, and conspiracy to overthrow the apartheid government of South Africa; he was elected president of South Africa in 1994, four years after he was finally released from prison.
Muslim League
The All-India Muslim League, created in 1906, was a response to the Indian National Congress in India’s struggle for independence from Britain; the League’s leader, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, argued that regions of India with a Muslim majority should form a separate state called Pakistan.
Jawaharlal Nehru
first prime minister of independent India (1889–1964)

Literally, “truth force”; Mahatma Gandhi’s political philosophy, which advocated confrontational but nonviolent political action
Impoverished black neighborhood outside Johannesburg, South Africa, and the site of a violent uprising in 1976 in which hundreds were killed; that rebellion began a series of violent protests and strikes that helped end apartheid
International terrorist organization of fundamentalist Islamic militants, headed by Osama bin Laden
Major international movement that protests the development of the global economy on the grounds that it makes the rich richer and keeps poor regions in poverty while exploiting their labor and environments; the movement burst onto the world stage in 1999 with massive protests at a meeting of the World Trade Organization in Seattle
Osama bin Laden
The leader of al-Qaeda terrorist organization, a wealthy Saudi Arabian who turned to militant fundamentalism. (pron. oh-ZAHM-ah bin LAWD-n) responsible for the 9/11 terrorist attacks that included the Twin Towers. 
Bretton Woods System
Named for a conference held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in 1944, this system provided the foundation for postwar economic globalization, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund; based on the promotion of free trade, stable currencies, and high levels of capital investment.
Twentieth-century movement to preserve the natural world in the face of spiraling human ability to alter the world environment.
Occurring within all the major world religions, fundamentalism is a self-proclaimed return to the “fundamentals” of a religion and is marked by a militant piety and exclusivism
Term commonly used to refer to the massive growth in international economic transactions from around 1950 to the present.
Global Warming
A worldwide scientific consensus that the increased burning of fossil fuels and the loss of trees have begun to warm the earth’s atmosphere artificially and significantly, causing climate change and leading to possibly catastrophic results if the problem is not addressed.
Che Guevara
Ernesto “Che” Guevara was an Argentine-born revolutionary (1928–1967) who waged guerrilla war in an effort to remedy Latin America’s and Africa’s social and economic ills. 
Fundamentalist Hindu movement that became politically important in India in the 1980s by advocating a distinct Hindu identity and decrying government efforts to accommodate other faith groups
Islamic Renewal
Large number of movements in Islamic lands that promote a return to strict adherence to the Quran and the sharia in opposition to key elements of Western culture
Term used by modern militant Islamic groups to denote not just the “struggle” or “striving” that the word originally meant but also the defense of authentic Islam against Western aggression. 
Kyoto protocol on global warming
International agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an effort to slow global warming; as of November 2007, 174 countries had subscribed to the agreement, but the United States’ refusal to ratify the protocol has caused international tensions
An approach to the world economy, developed in the 1970s, that favored reduced tariffs, the free movement of capital, a mobile and temporary workforce, the privatization of industry, and the curtailing of government efforts to regulate the economy.
North/South gap
Growing disparity between the Global North and the Global South that appears to be exacerbated by current world trade practices.
Augusto Pinochet
Military dictator of Chile from 1973 to 1990 who was known for his widespread use of torture and for liquidating thousands of opponents of his regime
Prague Spring
Sweeping series of reforms instituted by communist leader Alexander Dubcek in Czechoslovakia in 1968; the movement was subsequently crushed by a Soviet invasion.
The quickening of global economic transactions after World War II, which resulted in total world output returning to the levels established before the Great Depression and moving beyond them
Religious right
The fundamentalist phenomenon as it appeared in U.S. politics in the 1970s.
second-wave feminism
Women’s rights movement that revived in the 1960s with a different agenda than earlier women’s suffrage movements; second-wave feminists demanded equal rights for women in employment and education, women’s right to control their own bodies, and the end of patriarchal domination.
World Trade Organization
International body representing 149 nations that negotiates the rules for global commerce and is dedicated to the promotion of free trade.