Geology 100

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Geology 100

Study Guide Of Geology. Exam On Friday.

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chemical compounds that form through natural processes and have orderly atomic arrangements and have specific chemical compositions or a limited range over which chemical composition varies
major elements in the crust
oxygen, silicon, aluminum, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium
rocks high in Si are also high in______
alkalis (Na and K)
four factors that determine chemical composition
degree of melting (partial or whole), what part of the earth is melting, the pressure present, and whether water is present
the resistance to flow, determined by chemical composition (more Si- more tetrahedral- slower) and temperature of the magma
strato volcanoes
steep slope, andesitic magma, very explosive and viscous, pyroclastic debris
shield volcanoes
small slope, basaltic magma, not very explosive or viscous, lava flow
volcanoes differ in....
slope, chemical composition of magma, temperature of magma, eruption style
horizontal- sill- laccolith
vertical- dike- batholith
large grains- cooled slowly
small grains cooled fast
large phenocrysts in a groundmass of small grains.. cooled slowly then sped up
no minerals cooled to fast
pores, cooled fast, bubbles got trapped
forms of chemical weathering
dissolution, hydration, oxidation, carbonation
forms of phyiscal weathering
sheet joints, frost wedging
dissolving a mineral in water
products of weathering
dissolved ions, new minerals, and minerals resistant to weathering
carbonation or hydration
mineral combining with carbonic acid or water forming  a new mineral
increase in valence state 
ability to have water go through the material
pore space in the ground that water can go through
velocity depends on...
slope of the water table, permeability of the material
darcy's law
the hydralic head of a drop of water is equal to the elevation of the drop plus the water pressure on the drop
rock that is permeable and saturated (sandstone,conglomerate, fractured rocks, sand and gravel)
bad aquifers
shale, gneiss, schist 
the removing of pesticides by putting bugs in the earth that eat it
geothermal energy
source of direct heat if available in area
glaciers need ____ and ____ to form
precipitation and cold temperatures
valley glaciers
formed on mountains
ice sheets
formed on the poles
what percentage of the earth is covered in ice?
percentages of where ice is on earth
85% antartic, 10% Greenland, 5% everywhere else
pieces of frozen rock broken loose and frozen into base of glacier
base of glacier slides over bedrock, and the embedded pieces of rock grind against the bedrock
results from glacical erosion
polished surfaces, striations and grooves, rock flour
hanging valleys
valleys filled with ice
materials deposited by glaciers
material deposited by glacier ice
materials deposited by glacier melt
any kind of land form that comes in contact with glacial ice
boulders deposited by glaciers
upside down spoon mountains
lakes formed  by glaciers
cause of glacial ages
variations in earth's orbit, as it effects distance from the sun, and inclination to the sun etc
clastic sediments
resistant/ new minerals that have been transported and deposited by water, wind or ice
conversion of loose unconsolidated sediments into solid sedimentary rocks by compaction or cementation
squeezed together and push out water
pore spaces are filled with chemical precipitates that bind sediments together
primary sedimentary features
bedding, ripple marks, cross bedding
forms in solid state, chemical composition not changed.
rocks can change in 2 ways....
texture change and minerals change
kinds of foliation
schistosity, lineation, banding
types of metamorphism
contact, regional metamorphism
source of heat
decay of radioactive isotopes, heat of the earth
beta decay
gain a proton, loose neutron
electron capture
gain a neutron, loose a proton
alpha decay
loose 2 neutrons and 2 protons
epicenter of earthquake
the point on the earth's surface where the earthquake originates 
focus of an earthquake
point below surface where it originated
how strong the earthquake is
p waves
primary waves, 1st to arrive, go through any substance
s waves
secondary, only goes through solids, 2nd
tsunami develops when...
faulting affects the ocean floor. this generates waves in the open ocean that have long wavelengths and low amplitudes. when the waves approach the shore, the ocean bottom interferes with the waves, causing the waves to have short wavelengths and large amplitudes
when water-saturated sediment is shaken by an earthquake it can behave as a liquid
NaCl vs CaCo3 in ocean
NaCl is not near the saturation point in open ocean whereas CaCO3 is
enlargement of mineral grains, associated with metamorphism
evidence of plate tectonics
geometric fit of coastlines, stratographic (list of sedimentary rocks over time) evidence, ages of sediments and fossils evidence, linear magnetic anomalies, ages igneous rocks, palemagnetic evidence
plate boundaries
transform fault, divergent, convergent
divergent oceanic-oceanic
seafloor spreading, normal fault, tension, shallow focus earthquakes, basalt
pushed together
pulled apart
shear stress
pushed but not centered
the direction the bed is trending
how far it's tilted
mass wasting
the movement of materials down a slope without the help of any other transportation agent
unconsolidated soil and rock debris
more coherent than regolith, but bedding an fractures are present
forces to overcome in mass wasting
frictional forces, cohesion of materials, shallow slope
liquid moving like a liquid but not a coherent mass, creep very slow
descending mass remains coherent unit
landslides, very fast
vertical movement could be caused by waves or frost wedging
drainage divides
high areas that seperate drainage basins
width x depth x velocity
sedimentary landforms in streams formed from sediment deposited by decreased discharge of velocity, eventually these can become islands in the stream
meandering stream
narrow and deeper channels, carry all sediment
drainage patterns
dendritic, radial, trellis
incised meanders
cut down from stream, steep walls
alluvial fans
large fan-shaped pile of sediment formed where stream velocity decreases as it emerges from narrow canyon
water gaps
cut through ridges
flood plain
the stream approaches the flood stage, it flows a relatively high velocity in attempting to adjust to increased discharge, this increases its capacity to carry sediment. once a stream overflows its banks, it slows down as a result of the increase in width. the lowering of velocity results in sediment deposition by the floodwaters, which results in flat landform beside the stream known as the floodplain 
base level
at sea level. the elevation to which any stream is able to erode.