FAMR 230 Exam 1

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FAMR 230 Exam 1

Flashcards Of Terms For The FAMR 230 Class. UH Manoa.

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Lifespan Development
Continues through life
3 Interrelated areas of Lifespan development
Physical, cognitive, psychosocial
A group of people born around the same time in the same place
Continuous change
Gradual developments where achievements BUILD on previous level
Discontinuous change
Distinct steps, each behavior brings out a different change
Critical period
Time during development where stimuli has its greatest consequences (Long lasting, irreversible consequences)
Sensitive period
Reversible consequences, if stimuli are removed
Any factor that is produced by the predetermined unfolding of genetic information
Freud's psychoanalytic theory
UNCONCIOUS forces act to determine personality and behavior, the unconscious is a part of a person's personality that they are unaware of. i.e. hidden wishes/desires
Freud's 3 components of personality
id - raw, unorganized inborn part of personality present at birth, pleasure principleego-rational and reasonable, buffer between world and idsuperego-person's conscience, distinctions between right and wrong
Erikson's psychosocial theory
Society and culture shape us
Psychosocial development
Changes in our interactions with and understandings of one another as well as in our knowledge and understanding of us as members of society
Behavioral perspective (SKINNER)
Keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment
Operant conditioning 
Form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive/negative consequences
Behavior modification
Formal technique of promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones
Piaget's cognitive theory
All pass through fixed sequence series of universal stages of cognitive development, quality of knowledge and understanding 
Humanistic perspective
People have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior
Bioecological approach
Perspective that different levels of the environment simultaneously influence individuals 
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
Cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture
Scientific method
Posing and answering questions using systematic, orderly observation and data collection
Prediction that can be tested
Naturalistic observation
Naturally occurring behavior is observed without intervention
Case studies
Independent variable
Variable that researches manipulate
Dependent variable
Variable that researchers expect to change and measure
Group of participants chosen for an experiment
Longitudinal research
Behavior of one or more participants is measured as they age
Cross-sectional research
People of different ages are compared at the same time
Sequential studies
Examine number of different age groups over several points in time
Fertilized egg
23 pairs for humans
Monozygotic twins
Identical twins, one egg
Dizygotic twins
Fraternal twins, two eggs 
Boy or girl
Determined by the 23rd chromosome, XY - boy XX - girl
Down syndrome
Extra chromosome in 21st pair
Genetic counseling
Helps people deal with issues related to inherited disorders
Chriionic villus sampling
Test used to find genetic defects, uses samples of hair-like material that surrounds embryo
Identifies genetic defects using sample of fetal cells
Sperm + ovum = zygote
Stages of prenatal period
Germinal- First two weeks after conception, shortest period. Division and differentiation of cells occur.Embryonic- 2-8 weeks, critical period, organs developFetal- 8 weeks - birth, last stage of prenatal development
Environmental agent (drug, virus, etc.) that produces birth defect
Term for newborn
Incision made to increase size of vagina allowing baby to pass (GOD DAMN)
Apgar scale
Rating system for new born's health, 7-10 is a healthy baby
Restriction of oxygen to baby during birth process that can produce brain damage
Close physical and emotional contact between parent and child immediately following birth.
Preterm infants
Infants born prior to 38 weeks after conception
Low birth weight infants
Infants who weigh less than 5.5 lbs at birth
Small for gestational age infants
Delayed fetal growth causes infants to weigh 90% or less of infants of the same gestational age
very low birthweight infants
Infants who weigh less than 2.25 grams or have been in the womb less than 30 weeks
Unlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically from certain stimuli
Decrease in response to stimulus after it appears repeatedly 
Cephalocaudal principle
Principle that growth begins at the head and upper body parts and proceeds downwards
Proximodistal principle
Principle that development proceeds from center of body outwards
Synaptic pruning
Elimination of neurons as the result of nonuse or lack of stimulation
 Fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds transmission of nerve impulses
degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable 
Repetitive, cyclical patterns of behaivor
Degree of awareness an infant displays to internal and external stimulation
Gross motor skills
Involves the whole body
Fine motor skills
Hand-eye coordination, picking up a cup to drink
Developmental norms
Average performance of large sample of children at a given age
improper amount and balance of nutrient, produces             several results, none good. Marasmus for children under 1
Piaget's approach
Qualitative, all children must pass through 4 universal stages 
Organized pattern of sensorimotor functioning
Incorporates new information
Changes information
Deferred imitation
Person who is no longer present is imitated later
Information processing approaches
Model that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in, use, and store information
One-word utterances that stand for a whole phrase
Telegraphic speech
2 word speech (doggy go)
Infant directed speech
Speech for infants, short simple sentences
Stranger anxiety
Caution and wariness displayed by an infant encountering a stranger
Separation anxiety
Distress when customary care provider departs
Social smile
Smiling in response to others
Social referencing
Looking to trusted adult on how to act in unfamiliar situations
Social bond between child and an individual
Ainsworth Strange Situation
sequence of staged episodes that illustrates strength of attachment between child and mother
Secure attachment pattern
Style of attachment that uses mother as home base, at ease when present, uneasy when she leaves and runs to her when she returns.
Reciprocal socialization 
infant's behavior bring responses from parents and caregivers, which brings out more response from infants
Characteristics that differentiates one from another
Trust verus mistrust stage
Period where infants develop sense of trust or mistrust, depending on how needs are met by caregiver -Erikson
Autonomy-versus-shame-and doubt stage
Period which toddlers (18 months - 3 years) develop independence if they are free to explore or shame if they are restricted
Patterns of arousal and emotionality that are constant and enduring characteristics
Goodness of fit
Notion that development is dependent on degree of match between children's temperament and the nature and demands of the environment in which they are being raised.