Famous People In Psychology

49 cards

Descriptions Of Famous People In Psychology And What They Are Most Known For Or Associated With. 

Preview Flashcards

Front Back
Wilhelm Wundt
Founder of scientific psychologyFounded first formal lab
Studied consciousness using introspection in Leipzig, GermanyAssociated with school of Structuralism - early psychological perspective that emphasized units of consciousness and identification of elements of thought through introspection; breaking down mental processes into basic components.Titchener = student Wrote Principles of Physiological Psychology
William James 
"Father of psychology"Wrote Principles of Psychology James-Lange theory of emotion says emotion is the mind's perception of physiological conditions that result from some stimulusAssociated with School of Functionalism - early psychological perspective concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to adapt to its environment
John Dewey
One of the founders of School of Functionalism and philosophy of pragmatism Carr, Mead, and Angell also proponents of Functionalism
John Watson
Established School of Behaviorism - analysis of behavior and reactions is the only objective method to get insight into human actions; learning as a result of experienceKnown for experiments in classical conditioningThought thinking consisted of "subvocal speech" Little Albert experiment"Twelve infants" quote 
B.F. Skinner
Part of the Behaviorist SchoolKnown for experiments in operant conditioningInvented the operant conditioning chamber ("Skinner box")Schedules of reinforcement 
Sigmund Freud 
"Father of psychoanalysis"Psychoanalysis - concerned with how unconscious instincts, conflicts, motives and defenses influence behaviorFree association, theory of transference, interpretation of dreams, id, ego & superego, theory of psychosexual development, thanatos, eros Daughter = Anna
Josef Breuer
Helped lay foundation for psychoanalysisWorked with Freud
Carl Jung
Founder of analytical psychologyCollective unconsciousArchetypesAnima and animus 
Alfred Adler
Founder of the school of Individual PsychologyMost famous concept = inferiority complex and emphasis on power dynamics Personality types = getting/leaning, avoiding, ruling/dominant, socially useful Emphasized birth order as influencing style of life (idiographic measure)
Karen Horney 
Classified as Neo-Freudian Detailed theory of neurosis: a continuous process with neuroses occurring sporadically during life; named ten patterns of neurotic needs (moving toward, against or away from people aka compliance, aggression, and detachment)Criticized Freud's theory of penis envySelf-actualization is a person's aim throughout life (we have real self and ideal self)
Heinz Kohut
Psychoanalyst known for development of Self Psychology Tripartite (three-part) self can only develop when the needs of one's self-states are met Extended Freud's theory of narcissism and introduced "self-object transferences of mirroring and idealization" 
Carl Rogers
Among the founders of the humanist approach Person-centered or client-centered therapyPerceptual field = reality for an individual Phenomenal field = changing world of experience Behavior = goal-directed attempt at satisfying needs "Unconditional Positive Regard" Main issue is the development of the self-concept 
Abraham Maslow
Founder of the Humanistic approachConceptualized the "hierarchy of human needs"     Basic Needs     Security and Stability     Love and Belonging     Self-Esteem      Self-Actualization  
Joseph Wolpe
Developed systematic desensitization 
Dollard, Doob and Miller
Social learning theorists who proposed the frustration-aggression hypothesis
Wolfgang Kohler
Spent several years studying the problem-solving abilities of chimps and observed that animals often exhibit insight
Hans Selye
A noted stress researcher; identified the General Adaptation Syndrome (alarm, resistance, exhaustion)
Developed theory of emotion that says emotions originate in the subcortical brain structures and create the conscious or visceral feelings of emotions
Developed theory of emotion that says people determine the emotion from their physiological arousal and label that emotion to agree with their cognitive explanation for it (a cognitive approach to emotion)
Developed a relationship between arousal and performance (illustrated by a bell-shaped curve). Also developed a rule: For easy tasks, moderately high arousal is needed to do well. For difficult tasks, moderately low. And for most average tasks, moderate level of arousal. 
David McClelland
Noted for work on achievement motivation and consciousness. Achievement motive found to be highly related to individual productivity and success. Levels of the need for achievement vary. People with fear of success or fear of failure seem to have had negative experiences with achievement. 
Konrad Lorenz
One of the founders of modern ethology. Studied instinctive behavior in animals (fixed action patterns) and rediscovered imprinting. 
Noam Chomsky
Developed theory of generative grammar whose properties arise from an innate universal grammar. 
Edward Tolman
Developed a motivation theory known as the expectancy-value theory which states Performance = Expectancy x Value. Also states that behavior results from the interactions between needs and demands of a person and the person's perception of the quality of the environment. Also said that behavior is elicited by environmental cues, both internal and external, and a variety of "unbalanced" situations.  Also studied latent learning and cognitive maps using rats in mazes
William McDougall
Developed the idea that each instinct is receptive to certain stimuli and that the receptivity and behavioral components of each instinct might change as a function of learning 
Clark Hull
Sought to explain learning and motivation by scientific laws of behavior. Also known for his drive theory: organisms are born with certain physiological needs and that a negative state of tension is created when these needs are not satisfied. When a need is satisfied, drive is reduced and the organism returns to a state of homeostasis and relaxation
Leon Festinger 
Developed the theory of cognitive dissonance and social comparison theory. Cognitive dissonance states that inconsistency between beliefs and behaviors will cause intense psychological tension and a person will try to alleviate that tension by changing their beliefs instead of their behavior
Gordon Allport 
One of the founding figures of personality psychology. Emphasized the uniqueness of each individual and the importance of the present context, as opposed to past history.   Known as a trait psychologist - organized trait-like words into three traits (cardinal, central, and secondary). Drew distinction between motive and drive. He suggested that a drive formed as a reaction to a motive may outgrow the motive as a reason. The drive then is autonomous and distinct from the motive, whether it is instinct or any other.
Hermann Ebbinghaus
Pioneered the experimental study of memory, and his known for his discovery of the forgetting curve, learning curve and spacing effect. 
Ivan Pavlov 
Described the phenomenon of classical conditioning (conditioned reflex)
Jean Piaget 
Developed a theory of cognitive development which consisted of four stages: Sensorimotor (circular reactions, object permanence), Pre-operational thought (magical thinking, egocentrism), Concrete operational thought (think logically but concretely) and Formal operational thought (abstract reasoning).
Erik Erikson
Developed a psycho-social theory. Stages: trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame/doubt, initiative vs guilt, industry vs inferiority, identity vs role confusion, intimacy vs isolation, generativity vs stagnation, integrity vs despair
Lawrence Kohlberg
Moral development theory: Pre-conventional (obedience & punishment orientation and self interest orientation), Conventional (interpersonal accord & conformity and authority & social order maintaining orientation), Post-conventional (social contract and universal ethics).
Edward Thorndike 
His work on animal behavior and learning led to the theory of connectionism. Formulated the law of effect: responses that are closely followed by satisfying consequences become associated with the situation and are more likely to recur when the situation presents itself again. Instrumental learning. Kitten puzzle box. 
Theory of trichromatic color vision. 
Kurt Koffka, Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler 
Gestalt theorists 
Ernst Heinrich Weber
Saw that the relationship between stimulus and perception is logarithmic P=k ln S
Premack's principle = high probability behavior paired with low probability behavior results in increase of the low probability behavior. 
Albert Bandura 
Most famous for his social learning theory (observe and then imitate behavior) Bobo doll experiment. Found that self-efficacy beliefs mediated changes in behavior and fear-arousal. 
Token economy with monkeys. Secondary reinforcers become primary reinforcers
Martin Seligman
Studied learned helplessness in dogs
Developed three part memory model - Sensory, Short-Term and Long-Term
Gordon Bower
Looked at how context affects memory - Mood Congruent Memory
Benjamin Whorf
Known for his theories in linguistic relativity. Believed that language affects the way we see the world
Donald Broadbent 
Developed a Memory filter theory - thought process can be modeled in series of sequential stages and information is lost at each stage. Filter located between the sensory register and short-term memory storage 
William Sheldon 
Somatotype Theory - Assigned people into three categories of body types: endomorphs, mesomophs and ectomorphs. 
Julian Rotter 
Social learning theory and locus of control = individual's belief about how much they control their destiny
George Kelly
Best known for developing Personal Construct Psychology which looks at how we develop bipolar mental constructs to judge and predict others behavior
Kurt Lewin
Often recognized as founder of social psychology. One of the first to study group dynamics and organizational development. Force field analysis = provides framework for looking at forces that influence a situation. B = f(P,E) means that behavior is a function of a person and his/her environment