Essentials Human Disease/Conditions CH 8

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Diseases/Conditions Digestive System

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Removal of the apical protion of tooth root
Pertaining to nerve fibers that liberate acetylcholine at the nyonerual junction
Surgical removal of all/part colon
Wearing away a surface
Cleft/groove on surface of organ/ tissue
Abnormal passage between organ and body surface
Necrosis/death of tissue
Vomiting bright red blood
white plaque, patches on mucous membranes
Typinf off blood vessel
Local/general enlargemetn of lymph nodes/vessels
Tumor cells spread to distant organs
Burning/squeezing pain on swallowing
Behind Sternum
false membrane
Surgical/pathologic connection between two vessels/structors
Aphthous Ulcers
Recurrent Canker sores
wasting disorder, malnutrition, cancer, HIV, TB
Profuse sweating
H2-receptor anatagonist
Chemical agent that blocks interaction of histamine/ acetylcholine on receptors of stomach cells. drugs that inhibit gastric acid 
Controlling bleeding
Enlargement of Liver
Excess blood in part or area
Cleaning out a cavity with fluid
Muschle Pain
Inflammation of membrane that lines abdominal cavity
Proton pump inhibitor
Drugs that block gastric acid secretion;
Malabsorbtion of fat in feces
Function of teeth
Mastication, breakdown of food for digestion
Causes for missing permanent teeth
Decay, accident, impaction, congenital missing
Major sysmptom of TMJ
Pain in the TMJ
Fungal infection
Squamous cell oral cancers make up what percentage of oral cancers
Major contributors to oral cancers
Alcohol, smoking, snuff
Treatments for oral cancer
Radiation, surgery, Laser therapy, therapeutic irradiation
Main symptom for esophagitis
Burning chest pain (Hearburn)
Main culprit for gastritis
H Pylori
Barrett's Esophagus contributes to what in the proximal stomach
Gastric cancer
Length of Appendix
3 1/2 inches
Function of appendix
No known purpose
Appliance worn by people with hernia
Area of alimentary canal affected by Crohn's disease
any portion, from mouth to anus can become edematous and inflamed
Ulcerative Colitisi is a risk for what condition
Colon Cancer
Matin goal when treating gastroenteritis
Maintian hydration and electrolyte balance
Symptoms of intestinal obsturction
Pain, N/V, bloat, no passage of stool/gas, electrolyte imbalance, elevated WBC, hyperactive or missing bowel sounds
Site of colon for diverticulosis
Distal protion, Sigmoid
3rd leading cancer cuase of men and women
Colorectal cancer
Is peritonitis life threatening
Which sex experieces a higher incidence of Cirrhosis
What is the incubation period for Hep A
15-50 Days
Four Fat Soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K
The alimentary canal process and transports?
Function of teeth
Periodontitis/Periodontal Disease
Destruction of the gums and bone around a tooth
Pus-filled pocket surrounding root of tooth
Tooth Abscess
Symptoms Herpes Simplex
Blisters on lips, inside mouth, painful ulcers lasting hours to days
Symptoms Oral Cancer
White pathcy lesions, oral ulcesr that fail to heal
Causes for normal Esophageal reflux
Overeating, weight, pregnancy
Treatment for Esophagitis
Bland diet, strong antiacids
Cause of Hiatal Hernia
Upper portion of stomach protrudes through opening in diaphram
Mechanical bowel obstructiion, twisting of the bowel on itself
Short bowel syndrome interfers with the absorptin of
Nutrients, fluid, vitamins, and minerals
Celiac Disease
Disease of the small intestine: malabsorption, gluten intolerance and damage to lining of intestines
Med causes discoloration of teeth
Antibacterial mouthwash precribed for gingivitis
Chlorhexidine (Periogard)
Oral Thrush is treated with what
Candida Albicans is treated with Nystatin
GERD is treated with
Omeprazole, cessation of smoking, elevating the head at bedtime
Do not use this drug with patients with Peptic Ulcer
Peptic Ulcer is treated with
Nexium, Zantac, Tagament (Esomeprazole, Rantidine, Cimetidine)
Treatment for Ulcerative Colitis
Corticosteriods, Sulfasalazine, anticholinergic agents
Treatment for Peritonitis
Broad spectrum antibiotics, parenteral electrolytes, pain killers
Treatment for motion sickness
Dramamine, Dimenhydrinate
Hep A is transmitted
Fecal-oral, comtaminiated water, food, stools
Overuse of Broad-Spectrum antibiotics is seem with
Pseudomembranous entercolitis
Symtoms include biliary colic with radiating pian  and jaundice
Chronic Irreversible degeneration of the Liver
The Hepatitis is transmitted by blood and body fluid
B and C
Peritonitis in an inflamation of what
Serous Membrane that lines the abdomin
Mechanical bowel obstruction
Neoplasm, volvulus, intussusception, fecal impact
4th leading cause of cancer deaths
Allergic reaction, irritation from roods, mechanical injury, medications, poisons, alcohol, infectious diseases
Cuase:Plaque biofilm, Contriburing factors: Chemotherapy, diabetes, smoking, HIV,
Barrett's esphagus
Treat for GERD, Endoscopic exam every 3 years, acid-suppression medis, lifestyle change, antireflux surgery
How does malocclusion present
Protrusion or recession of the jaw, crowded teeth, tooth loss
Untreated ginvigitis leads to what condition
Symtoms of TMF
Pain in jaw worse by chewing, clicking sounds when chewing, limitaion of jow movement (unilateral) tinnitus, deafnes
Aphthous Mouth Ulcer vs Cold Sore
trauma, stress, illnes vs Herpes simplex virus Pale yellow spots with red boarders vs red raised lesions
Causes for GERD
Relaxation of esphogeal sphincter, hiatial hernia, some meds, alcohol, coffee, some foos
Medication class for treating GERD
Antiacids, proton pum inhibitor
What does Helicobacter Pylori do 
H. Pylori causes gastric and peptic ulcers
Complications from Esphageal Varices
Rupture of the lining of the esophaus-hemorrhage, hypovolemic shock
Endoscopy visulaizes what
Upper GI tract
Colonoscopy visualizes whatD
Initial symptoms of gastric cancer
vague digestive symptons, no pain
McBurney's Point
Point of tenederness in acute appendicitis
Strangulated hernia
bowel is trapped or twiested on itself at the point of herniation. Blood supply is cut off - gangrene
Symptoms Ulcerative Colitis
Chronic inflamation of mucosa of rectum and colon, chronic/severe diarrhea
Crohns Disease
Chronic inflammation of all layers of bowel wall anywhere in the digestive tract, severe diarrhea and bowel obstruction.
Rx for Gastroenteritis
control symptoms, maintain fluid level and electrolyte balance, education
Functional Intestinal obstruction
Nonmechanical blockage, paralysis of the bowel from medication, peritonitis, surgery (paralytic ileus, congenital megacolon)
Mechanical Intestinal obstruction
Tumors, foreign bodies, impaction, strictures, compression, twisint, intussusception, strangulations.
Diverticulosis vs Diverticulitis
Weak points in the muscular layer of the large intestines form outpouches. Then these become inflamated from infection - perforation of bowel.
Assessment for Colorectal Cancer
Hx/Px, stool specimens, barium enema, signmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, CT Scan.
Why do antibiotics cause Pseudomembranous entercoloitis
It destroys the natural protective intestinal flora and allows infection with Clostridium Difficile.  Bowel inflames, ulcerates, necrosis.
S/S of Cirrhosis of the Liver
Loss of appetite, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, indigesion, distention, edema, tendency to bleed, jaundice, pruritis, spider nevi, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia, memory impairment. Signs: enlarged liver, abnormal xrays, elevated liver enzymes, bilirubin in bloos, hepatic failure - death
Biliary Colic vs Acute Pancreatitis
Colic: pain in epigastric or RUQ -radiating to R scapula. Jaundice. Acute: sudden onset severe abd pain, radiating to back, N/V, Diaphoretic, tachy, B/P falls, fever, abd tenderness, decreased bowel sounds
Causes of Pancreatitis
Alcohol, biliary tract disease, gallstones, trauma, infection, structural anomalies, hemorrhage, hyperlipidemia, drugs, metabolic/ endocrine disorders
Disorders of nutrition lead to
Malnutrition, malabsorption, food poisoning, anorexia nervosa, bulimina, obsety and hypervitaminosis
Diagnostic criteria for Celiac Disease
Biopsy shows destruction of mucosal lining of bowel, gulten free diet resolves problem.
Most common bloodborne infection in US
HCV - Hepatits C Virus
Third most common site of cancer in men and women
Colorectal cancer