EPPP Physiological Psychology: Brain Anatomy And Physiology

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Study Guide: Brain Anatomy And Physiology For The Phys. Psych. Section Of EPPP

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balance and posture; sensorimotor learning and some other aspects of cognitive functioning 
Cerebellum in conjunction with basal ganglia and motor cortex
vital to performance of coordinated and refined motor movements
Smaller-than-normal cerebellum
linked to Autism
Damage to cerebellum
Ataxia (slurred speech, severe tremors, loss of balance)
Reticular Formation
respiration, coughing, vomiting, posture, locomotion, REM sleep
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
part of reticular formation; consciousness, arousal, wakefulness; screens sensory input (esp. during sleep), arouses higher centers of brain when imp. info. must be processes
Damage to Reticular Formation
disruption of sleep-wake cycle, can produce coma-like state of sleep
subcortical and cortical structures
Name subcortical structures
thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, limbic system
"relay station," transmits incoming sensory information to the appropriate areas of the cortex for all senses except olfaction (that goes directly to amygdala); motor activity, language, memory
Korsakoff Syndrome
thalamus, mammillary bodies of hypothalamus; thiamine deficiency, usually from alcoholism; severe anterograde amnesia, retrograde amnesia, confabulation
hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, body temp, movement, emotional reactions, initiates responses needed to maintain homeostasis
Damage to hypothalamus
uncontrollable laughter, intense rage, aggression
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
located in hypothalamus; mediates sleep-wake cycle and other circadian rhythms; maybe involved in seasonal affective disorder
Structures of basal ganglia
caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra
Basal Ganglia
planning, organizing, coordinating voluntary movement, regulating amplitude and direction of motor actions, sensorimotor learning, stereotyped motoric expressions of emotional states (such as smiling when happy)
Disorders with motor symptoms that are associated with basal ganglia
Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Tourette's syndrome
Other basal ganglia-related disorders
mania, depression, ocd, psychosis
Limbic system
primarily associated with the mediation of emotion
Parts of the limbic system
Amygdala, Hippocampus
Amgdala functions
integrates, coordinates, directs motivational and emotional activities, attaches emotions to memories, involved in recall of emotionally-cahrge experiences
Kluver-Bucy syndrome
lesions in the amygdala and temporal lobes in primates caused: reduced fear and aggression, increased docility, compulsive oral exploratory behaviors, altered dietary habits, produced hypersexuality and "psychic blindness" (inability to recognize significance or meaning of events or objects) 
Hippocampus functions
learning and memory (less implicated in emotions than other limbic structures); processes spatial, visual, and verbal information, consolidates declarative memories
Damage to hippocampus in conjunction with removal of temporal lobes
anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia (for events up to 3 years before surgery)
List lobes that make up each hemisphere of the Cerebral Cortex (cortical structures)
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
Name areas of frontal lobe
motor, premotor, prefrontal
Primary motor cortex functions
control of voluntary movements
Damage to primary motor cortex
loss of reflexes and flaccid hemiplegia (loss of muscle tone) in areas of body contralateral to the damage
Premotor cortex functions
contains Broca's area (usually on left side); speech production
Damage to Broca's area
Broca's (expressive) aphasia; difficulties in producing spoken and written language
Prefrontal cortex functions
emotion, memory, self-awareness, executive (higher-level cognitive) functions
Name 2 types of personality change associated with damage to prefrontal cortex
Pseudodepression, Pseudopsychopathy
Symptoms of pseudodepression
apathy, lethargy, narrowing of interests, reduced emotional reactions, reduced interest in sex, impaired memory and attention
Symptoms of pseudopsychopathy
loss of social tact, lack of empathy, impulsivity, sexual disinhibition, inappropriate jocularity
Cognitive deficits related to damage to prefrontal cortex
problems with abstract thinking, planning ability, decision-making; perseveration, inability to remember the temporal order of events
Hypofrontality (reduced metabolism in the prefrontal cortex)
linked to Schizophrenia, ADHD, normal age-related cognitive declines
Parietal lobe contains the...
somatosensory cortex
Functions of somatosensory cortex
governs pressure, temp, pain, proprioception, and gustation
Damage to parietal lobe
disturbances in spatial orientation, apraxia, somatosensory agnosia
Define apraxia
inability to perform skilled motor movements in the absence of impaired motor functioning
Define somatosensory agnosia
Inability to recognize familiar objects with use of the senses
Define tactile agnosia
inability to recognize familiar objects by touch
Define asomatognosia
failure to recognize parts of one's own body
Define anosognosia
inability to recognize one's own neurological symptoms or other disorder
Damage specifically to the right parietal lobe
contralateral neglect
Define contralateral neglect
loss of knowledge about or interest in the left side of the body
Damage specifically to the left parietal lobe
ideational apraxia, ideomotor apraxia, Gertsmann syndrome
Define ideational apraxia
inability to carry out a sequence of actions
Define ideomotor apraxia
inability to carry out a simple action in response to a command
Gertsmann syndrome
finger agnosia, right-left confusion, agraphia, acalculia
Temporal lobe contains the...
auditory cortex
Functions of auditory cortex
mediates auditory sensation and perception
Damage to the auditory cortex
auditory agnosia, auditory hallucinations, other disturbances in auditory sensation and perception
Location of Wernicke's area
located in left temporal lobe
Functions performed in Wernicke's area
receptive; involved in comprehension of language
Damage to Wernicke's area
Wernicke's (receptive) aphasia, characterized by severed deficits in language comprehension and abnormalities in language production
Function of areas of temporal lobe (other than Wernicke's area)
mediate encoding, retrieval, and storage of long-term declarative memories
Electrical stimulation of areas in temporal lobe
complex, vivid memories that had been previously forgotten
Damage to areas of temporal lobe
retrograde and anterograde amnesia
The occipital lobe contains the...
visual cortex
Functions of visual cortex
visual perception, recognition, and memory
Damage to occipital lobes
visual agnosia, visual hallucinations, cortical blindness, simultanagnosia
Damage to occipital lobe at junction with occipital, temporal, and parietal lobes
Define visual agnosia
inability to recognize familiar objects
Define simultanagnosia
inability to see more than one thing or one aspect of an object at a time
Define prosopagnosia
inability to recognize familiar faces
Name the structures of the hindbrain
brain stem (medulla and pons), cerebellum
Function of the medulla
influences flow of information between the spinal cord and the brain, coordinates swallowing, coughing, and sneezing, regulates vital functions including breathing, heartbeat and blood pressure
Damage to medulla
usually fatal
Function of the pons
connects two halves of cerebellum and plays a role in the integration of movements in the right and left sides of body