English Review Midterm 1

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This Is For My English Midterm.  Post-modern Culture Is Fun. This Site Is Good.

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Modern Existentialism
discussing how both internal and external factors influence the life a person lives; from Jean-Paul Sartre;: said that man cannot possibly be God because nothing can be the root of its own meaning; describes how human beings are and how their emotions impact who how they behave;  existentialism & Post-modernism: Post-Modernism makes fun of modern existentialism: goes against elitist and high art point of view (pieces that are so difficult that they are only for highly educated), sometimes it becomes part of post-modernism: rejects existentialist view of existence
1.       relations between art to life: imitation of the words of others; the imitative representation of nature and human behavior in art and literature; questioning reality-questioning traditional beliefs and looking into the post-modern; Imitation: to mime: goes back to Aristotle poetics (art is an imitation of a series of emotion; “produces pity and fear-related to the replicants”) produces some sort of tradition or value;
“Tradition and the Individual Talent”
A essay written by poet T.S. Eliot; describes that the belief that art only progresses through change is not true with literature – rather it must conform to tradition in order to be literature; says that we must take tradition into account when criticizing literature: relates to the post-modern element of art vs. the traditional aspect of literature; have to think about tradition in order to be considered an author
depicts art in a very pleasant way, beautiful depictions of real life, but real life is not as it is depicted in romantic art; from? Reflects inward emotion and leads to inward peace
Modern Realism
A mix between the Modern art that urban and experimental ideas and realism which showed things as they really are in real life, Realism became a popular art form in the 1920’s during World War I; important because it was a bridge between the art of two eras and showed the mix of the traditional art with modern interests 
Jean-Michel Basquiat
American artist/painter, incorporated words into his paintings, symbolized many political issues in his paintings; challenged many predetermined ideals in order to offer his own viewpoint on life; known for “Untitled (History of the Black People)” in which he shows images and words demonstrating the African & Egyptian slave trade
deeply experimental, reflected the modern world, showed the urban environment as opposed to the old, dying environment, showed skyscrapers; Frederick Jameson described how modernism differed from post-modernism (post is more flat & depthlessness, there is a lot of commoditization); death had become part of literature, a feeling of being alienated (Munch’s The Scream) and lost, Art began to reflect Art in a traditional sense
German Idealism
from Immanuel Kant in 1780s; idealism is the idea that things do not inherently have properties, but their meaning is dependent upon how we interpret the properties it is important to modernism because it bridged the gap between rationalism and empiricism (knowledge can only be attained after the fact); we cannot know what objects we will encounter, but rather how we will encounter them (Kant); look at how to avoid something in the future rather than looking at how it happened in the present (ex: car crash, Plato’s theory of men in cave seeing shadows and thinking that is what is real)
Language games
from Jean-Francois Lyotard (Post-Modern Condition: A report on Knowledge) & Ludwig Wittgenstein; said that power comes from how authoritatively you say something; Lyotard wants us to avoid language acting as authoritative
Depth model
project of the Enlightenment in which we can understand our existence by understanding the role of reason as universal laws; critiques the sense that truth can be found only either above or somehow deeply submerged in the unconscious; affect connects with Modern Existentialism which is connected to Modernism
a reflection and analysis on the art of consciousness and the phenomena which appears during consciousness; the study of consciousness as experienced from a first-person point of view; Who?
Legitimation crisis
from Habermas: when a government still has the legal right to govern but does not have the means to do so, crisis created because it is tough to process and understand information, Lyotard
The waning of affect
from Frederick Jameson (Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism), Related to Warhol’s Diamond in the Dust & Munich’s The Scream; the waning of affect is the effect that one part of the painting has on dulling out the rest of the painting such as the intense screamer taking away from the dull background, connected to the depth model, in Blade Runner (we feel for the replicants but the film shows the loss of emotion in the world; there seems to be a lack of human emotions, but when they do appear, they appear to be more striking
28. Technological Sublime 
-  -       Jameson – spectacle of technology o   Obsessed with beauty of nature, transformed into obsession with technology g -       A feeling of awe
.29.  Loss of radical past
30. Machuko
31. The well
32. The woman in the Dunes
-  is a novel by Kōbō Abe and a film based on the novel, directed by Hiroshi Teshigahara. The novel was published in 1962, - often known as a Kafkaesque story  - surreal at times and often an absurd nature, related to Jean-Paul Sartre's work  - protagonist= Junpei Niki - in the story, each character believes in his or her way of life  - village resembles a communist community- representative of Marx -Setting in the Dunes is a surreal environment, sand continuously pours down-- Surrealism    
33. Social Bond
- Lyotard discusses this -either society forms a functional whole, or it is divided in two - This breaking up of the grand Narratives (discussed below, sections 9 and 10) leads to what some authors analyse in terms of the dissolution of the social bond and the disintegration of social aggregates - The social bond is linguistic, but it is not woven with a single thread. It is a fabric formed by the intersection of at least two (and in reality an indeterminate number) of language games, obeying different rules. Jean-François Lyotard
34. Grand Narratives
Postmodernism is often suspicious of the "grand narratives" of the Enlightenment                        -  1. the overarching belief in reason as a means to achieve progress                        - 2. a single, complete and unviersal human nature                         - 3. a transcendence of human existance throug the acquisition of this formal knowledge and truth              - Habermas-- german philopsopher understood how Englightenment ideals ahve been discredited because of their roots in universal                                       humanism (humanism= man is the measure of all things) 
35.  Ontology
definition: is the philosophical study of the nature of being,existence or reality in general, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations - postmodernism brings metaphysics, ontology, epistemology, and ethics to an end because these types of study assume a fixed, universal reality - Postmodernism denies the basis for knowing anything except itself -  postmodernists proclaim a universal tolerance of all ideas.
36.  Cogito, Ergo, Sum
- in relation to renaid kart - understanding of catisian method - beginning of principles of rationalism - relates to jean-paul sartres piece
37. Memento
-Distortion between what is real and images -At what point does revenge for a beautiful cause become murder?
38.  Defilement
- to corrupt the purity or perfection of 
39.  In Praise of Shadows
- is the title of a short book on aesthetics by the Japanese author and novelist Jun'ichirō Tanizaki. - Comparisons of light with darkness are used to contrast Western and Asian cultures. - praises traditional Japanese architecture, where simplicity rules
40.  Replicants 
- A replicant is a bioengineered or biorobotic being created in the film Blade Runner (1982)
Movement beginning around the 1950’s and continuing until after WW2. Encouraged by industrialization and  a reaction to these material changes in history Also known as aesthetic modernity- increasing professionalism and specialization in which the elite class dominates and art is seen as avant guard, radical, and “autonomous” or outside the concerns of the world. Forces: demand for authentic self experience, principle of unlimited self realization, subjectivism of a hyper stimulated sensitivity to come to be dominant 
Life- world - Habermas
a universe that is self-evident or given, all things appear as themselves, and the people in this world have a shared understanding the meaning of these things, and thus have a shared  life experience. People in this life-world deal with everyday concerns practically, through the theory of communicative action (see below)  aka the public sphere that encompasses ordinary life; habermas believes that moderninity has led to a neglect and impoverishment of the life-world ideal.  
Theory of communicative action- Habermas 
This is the way to live in the life-world practically. the use of language as a means for reaching understanding in which participants, by relating to the world, raise valid claims that can be accepted/contested. When consensus is reached through communication regarding knowledge, it will stand as a working hypothesis that ultimately could be proven over time and accepted as true. Helps to eliminate the legitimization crisis We learn who we are/what we believe through our relations with others 
Fordism – Jameson/ Harvey
Began in 1914- beginning of consumer society, economic expansion and technological progression. System of mass production, assembly lines, standardized outputs, and a relatively fixed system of capital accumulation. Emphasis on standardization, simplicity, mechanization, and labor stability 
flexible accumulation- Harvey, idea of post- modernism 
stage following Fordism period in late 1950’s characterized by the emergence of more flexible modes of capital accumulation, “time space” compression, high rates of innovation and quicker responses to competitors in the market Flexibility with respects to labor processes, labor markets, products, and patterns of consumption. 
The precession of simulacra- Jean Baudrillard 
“a map that proceeds the territory” meaning that simulacra are beginning to replace rather than just represent their originals. Simulacra- 3 types “good appearances” Pre-modern era- images were clear copies of some original, reflection of basic reality. “evil appearances” industrial revolution era- images obscure the original. Masks and perverts basic reality. “precession of simulacra” post modern era- images image completely precedes the original, you can no longer strip away layers to discover the original. Bears no relation to any reality whatever
Spiritual rape is what happens when you are seduced into giving up your “life energy” to something that does not deserve you To give up your freedom, independence, joy, or peace Leaves you feeling depleted, powerless, vulnerable  and alone. 
Absolute spirit- hegal?
A mind that knows itself and its goals because of its connection of: Art- seeing the truth, aesthetics Religion- representation of the truth, theology Philosophy- comprehension of the truth the historical way in which humans seek an ever-greater awareness of the fundamental unity of all reality. 
technological sublime- 
fascination with new innovations in technology information is controlled and regulated by an increasingly centralized authority. Cybernetics contribute to “computerized societies” sublime is a category of nature that is: Produced not by human hands. Produced by god or some other unknowable figure immense, huge, hard to understand its creation, infinite 
Barbara Kruger- 
American conceptual artist Work- mainly black and white images with red captions Methods: Recontextualizes old pictures/ posters to mean something new- allows viewers to discover the deception behind everyday signs. She makes visible the break down of “meta-narrative” structures, the relationship between the sign and the signifier, to empower and enlighten viewers. Themes in her art: feminism, consumerism, individual identity, powers
Andy Warhol- “diamond dust shoes”
Warhol- American painter and filmmaker, leading figure in visual art movement known as pop art. Famous for avant guarde art ex: diamond dust shoes, coke bottle images, Cambells soup can, Marylyn Monroe paintings exhibit a new type of deathlessness and flatness, superficiality. His art is a series of simulacra of original subjects. “diamond dust shoes”- collection of dead objects hanging together on the canvas that represent in an artistic way their earlier life-world as the pile of shoes left over from Auschwitz. Warhol’s artistic style tricks the eye into seeing an elegant pop-art image with Utopian color, rather than the death and depression associated with Auschwitz. 
Bonadventure Hotel- Jameson
An example of a use of modernism in architecture. Building in downtown LA built by architect John Portman. Unique/modern aspects of the hotel: Unclear and unmarked ways to enter the hotel- signifies that the hotel does not wish to be a part of the city, but rather a replacement/replication of the city itself. (example of simulacra) Glass walls that repel the city outside- people inside can see out, but those outside can’t see in. represents the modern desire to aggressively gain power over others. Innovative escalators- show how a traditional action (walking) can be replaced by trendy machinery that signifies/ represents the old method (walking) but is in itself a new creation. (again idea of simulacra) a whole world was seen in the space of one futuristic hotel in the new metroposilis in downtown LA. Part of the technological and popular sublime 
The Wind up bird- by Haruki Murakami
novel by Haruki Murakami in 1997. Summary: the novel chronicles the life of a low-key unemployed man named Toru Okada. His cat runs away which begins the chain of events that prove that his seemingly boring life is more complicated than it appears. Toru Okada travels through different incarnations of himself throughout the novel. The effects of the past are often not felt by the characters in this novel. Main characters: Toru Okada- narrator, protagonist who lives in Japan. He has a blue mark on his cheek. Kumiko Okada- Toru’s wife and the breadwinner. Norboru Wataya- Kumiko’s older brother. His presentation masks his true personality. May Kasahara- teenage girl who is not in school. She is in constant contact with Toru and often talks to him about death Lieutenant Mamiya- officer during Japanese war in Manchukui. Malta Kano- she helps to find the missing cat Creta Kano- Malta’s younger sister. Nutmeg Alaska- she shares the wind-up bird stories and the blue mark on her cheek with Toru Cinnamon Akaska- Nutmeg’s son who does not speak. He communicates with hand movements. Themes: Desire- each character is led to different places by their desires. Silence- Cinnamon chooses silence over communication, he would rather be visually appraised than heard. limitations of spoken language language changes when spoken over phone. How well can one person really know another person? toru doesn’t know his wife kumiko doesn’t know herself mrs. wataya takes her husbands views as her own.
Ghost in the Shell-  
Japanese multimedia franchise of animated films, novels, and games. Focuses on activities of the counter-terrorist organization Public security section 9 in a futuristic cyberpunk Japan. Movie by Mamoru Oshii- Japanese filmmaker, director, writer. Uses philosophy oriented story telling Plot of the film Takes place in 2029. The barriers of the world are broken down by the internet, and humans are all connected to the information network. This brings vulnerability to “brain hacking”- the puppet master is the major hacker, it is a computer virus capable of invading cybernetics brains and altering victims memories. To prevent the crime, section 9 is formed to investigate/stop the puppet master. These are cyborgs (cybernetically enhanced cops) with incredible strengths and abilities that can access any network on earth. Concluding questions: what makes humans human? What is the puppet master in a world in which the distinction between human and machine is very blurry.