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Study Guide F Or EIDWS

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102.1 State and discuss  the six Naval Doctrine areas
  • Naval Warfare describes principles of naval forces.
  • Naval Intelligence guides intel support.
  • Naval Operations develops doctrine to reaffirm the foundation of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps expeditionary maritime traditions.
  • Naval Logistics addresses logistical capabilities.
  • Naval Planning examinesthe relationship between our capabilities in the joint environment.
  • Naval Command and Control provides the basic concepts to fulfill the information needs of commanders, forces, and weapon systems.
102.2 State th 7 Naval Logistics Principles
1. Responsiveness - Providing the right support at the right time, at the right place.
2. Simplicity - Avoiding unnecessary complexity in logistic operations.
3. Flexibility - Adapting logistic support to changing conditions.
4. Economy - Employing logistic support assets effectively.
5. Attainability - Acquiring the minimum essential logistic support to begin combat operations.
6. Sustainability - Providing logistic support for the duration of the operation.
7. Survivability - Ensuring the logistic infrastructure prevails in spite of degradation and damage.
102.3 First navy ship named for an enlisted man
USS Osmond Ingram (DD255)
Ingram was the first enlisted man killed in WWI.
102.4 Conditions that led to the formation of the US Navy
The colonists were fighting the British and it was clear that if the Colonies were to survive, a Navy was necessary. Therefore, on October 13, 1775, the Second Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels.
102.5 Three classes of naval vessels at inception
Ships of the Line - These were the battleships that carried 64 to over 100 guns of various sizes.   Frigates - smaller and faster than average ship-of-the-line. They generally carried 28 to 44 guns.   Sloops of War - small sailing warships that carried 10 to 20 guns.
(102.6.a) Discuss the military custom hand salute.
Salute from a position of attention. Your upper arm should be parallel to the deck or ground, forearm inclined at a 45-degree angle, hand and wrist straight, palm slightly inward, thumb and fingers extended and joined, with the tip of the forefinger touching the cap beak, slightly to the right of the right eye. Hold the salute until the officer has returned or acknowledged it, then bring your hand smartly to your side.
(102.6.b) Discuss the military custom: Saluting the Ensign.
coming on board a ship, salute the national ensign. stop on reaching the upper platforms ladder, face the national ensign, and render the salute, after which salute the officer of the deck. ender the salutes in inverse order when departing. The officer of the deck shall return both salutes in each case.
(102.6.c) Discuss the military custom: Dipping the ensign.
A salute to merchant ships... it lowers its national colors to half-mast. The Navy ship, at its closest point of approach, lowers the ensign to half-mast for a few seconds, then closes it up, after which the merchant ship raises its own flag. The U.S. NEVER salutes first
(102.6.d) Discuss the military custom Gun Salute.
Fired only by certain ships and stations as prescribed by the SecNav. Used to take up to 20 minutes to load and fire a gun.
(102.7.a) Discuss the importance of the voyage of the Great White Fleet.
December 16, 1907 - the Great White Fleet left Hampton Roads, Virginia, for a round-the-world cruise to show the flag.
(102.7.b) Discuss the importance of the Battle of the Coral Sea.
7-8 May 1942. First carrier vs. carrier battle.
(102.7.c) Discuss the importance of the Battle of Normandy
June 6, 1944, invasion of Normandy-the largest amphibious operation in history.  Operations enabled the Allies to complete D-Day landings successfully and eventually push on to Germany.
(102.7.d) Discuss the importance of the Battle of Midway
3-5 June 1942: Midway was the turning point of the Pacific war. U.S. crews sank 4 Japanese carriers and lost the Yorktown. In one day Japan lost its bid for control of the Pacific
(102.7.e) Discuss the importance of the Guadalcanal.
13-15 November 1942: After three days of bitter fighting, the Japanese naval forces retreated and U.S. Marines were able to secure the island of Guadalcanal. The Japanese lost 2 cruisers and 6 destroyers. The 5 Sullivans along with 700 others were lost. Because of this tragedy, Navy policy concerning family member separations was reinstated. A ship was later named in their honor.
(102.7.f) Discuss the importance of the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
23 OCT 1944. Japan lost to the U.S. and lost the Philippines. The final blow to the Japanese navy. The homeland was cut off from its main source of supply from the south.
102.8 Naval Space History
Mercury 3, May 5th 1961Naval Astronaut Alan B. Shepard was on the first U.S. manned space flight. Demonstrated the ability to achieve manual control under weightlessness.Gemeni 3, March 23rd, 1965Naval Astronaught John W. Young was on the first U.S. two-man space mission; first spacecraft to maneuver from one orbit to another; 3 Earth orbits.Apollo 11, June 16-24, 1969Civilian Astronaut (former Naval Aviator) Neil A. Armstrong was on the first manned lunar landing; Apollo 17, December 7-19, 1972Naval Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan and Ronald E. Evans were on the seventh and final lunar landing mission.STS 1 (Columbia), April 12-14, 1981Naval Astronauts John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen wer on the first orbital test flight of the Space Shuttle. All Navy crew. Orbiter completed planned 36 orbits and landed at Edwards AFB, Calif
(102.9.a) Describe the historical significance of On-the-Roof-Gang. 
- Foundation of the CT community. Named for its training location: classes were held in a wood structure set atop the Navy Headquarters Building in Washington DC.
- 176 Navy and Marine radio operators were trained.
(102.9.b) Describe the historical significance of The Purple Code
- Japanese cipher used by the Japanese Foreign Office 
- Named for the color binder the US crypanalyst kept the Japanese Foreign Office decrypts in.
- Germany-Tokyo comms
(102.9.c) Describe the historical significance of the Battle of Midway
Battle of Midway, 4-7 June 1942 

Japan intended a surprise attack on the U.S. Navy, which was thwarted by superior American communications intelligence.

Battle cost Japan four irreplaceable fleet carriers, while only one of the three U.S. carriers present was lost.
(102.9.d) Describe the historical significance of the USS Liberty. 
- Attacked by Israelis in 1967 in the Mediterranean Sea... Israelis claim they mistook it for an enemy ship.

On the afternoon of 8 June 1967, while in international waters off the Sinai Peninsula, Liberty, though clearly marked as a U.S. Navy ship, was struck by Israeli aircraft. 
(102.9.e) Describe the historical significance of the capture of the USS Pueblo
The USS PUEBLO was captured by the North Koreans in 1968. It was the first U.S. Navy ship to be hi-jacked on the high seas by a foreign military force in over 150 years. The lack of military response guarantees the Pueblo's place in history as a watershed event in our national conscience.
(102.9.f) Describe the historical significance of the D-Day Landing. 
6 June 1944

- Biggest amphibious assault
- allied ships and landing craft had to navigate minefields, tides, weather, and other obstacles.
- 1200 Navy ships and 4100 landing craft.
(102.9.g) Describe the historical significance of the Landing of Inchon
 September 15, 1950The Battle of Inchon was an amphibious invasion and battle of the Korean War that resulted in a decisive victory and strategic reversal in favor of the United Nations (UN). 

The subsequent UN recapture of nearby Seoul partially severed NKPA's supply lines in South Korea.
(102.9.h) Describe the historical significance of the Hainan Island EP-3 incident
01 April 2001

Chinese J-811 interceptor collided with an EP-3, which was forced down - Emergency destruct occurred on EP-3.

EP-3 crew was detained for 10 days - Chinese had free reign of the plane.
(102.9.i) Describe the historical significance of Bletchley Park. 
- Britain's crypto center
- ENIGMA decipher
- bombe

Bletchley Park was the site of the United Kingdom's main decryption establishment, the Government Code and Cypher School. 
(102.9.j) Describe the historical significance of the Navajo Code Talker
The Japanese, who were skilled code breakers, remained baffled by the Navajo language... It was never broken.

Navajo is an unwritten language of extreme complexity. Its syntax and tonal qualities, not to mention dialects, make it unintelligible to anyone without extensive exposure and training. 
(102.9.k) Describe the historical significance of the attack on the USS STARK.
17 May, 1987
- F1 fighter fired 2 Exocet missiles
There was no indication of attack - * Early Warning failed *
US failed to detect attack. STARK never fired a weapon or deployed a countermeasure. 
37 Sailors died.
(102.9.l) Describe the historical significance of the EC-121 shoot down
15 April 1969

The EC-121 was attacked without warning by North Korean MiG while flying its last mission with a double crew (31 Sailors). Everyone on board died.
102.10 State the qualities of the Navy/Marine Corps Team
1. Readiness
2. Flexibility 
3. Self-sustainability
4. Mobility
(102.11) State the 3 levels of war. 
1. Tactical - involves individual engagements
2. Operational- supports Theater
3. Strategic- supports National goals
(102.12) Discuss the National Security Act of 1947. 
* Established the National Security Council (NSC)
* Created the CIA and established its roles
* Merged the War and Navy departments into the National Military Establishment (NME) headed by the secretary of defense, and
* Recognized the US Air Force as an independent service from the Army.
(102.13) State when and why the current Navy Core Values were developed? 
Adopted by CNO Admiral Kelso in 1992... a product of the Core Values Initiative (CVI) established by the Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET). 
(102.14) Discuss when and why the Sailor's Creed was developed. 
The"Sailors Creed" was written by a "Blue Ribbon Recruit Training Panel" in 1993 at the direction of Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Frank Kelso.
* All personnel of Naval Service are SAILORS FIRST and in addition, they are officers, chiefs, petty officers - aviators, Seabees, surface warriors and submariners. 
(102.15) State RADM Grace Hopper's contributions to the U.S. Navy. 
RADM Hopper joined the USN in 1943, retired in 1966, recalled and then retired again in 1986. She died in 1992.

She was many things, to include a computer programmer, pioneer; created COBAL, coined the term computer bug... has "Amazing Grace" DDG-70 USS HOPPER named after her.
(102.16) State the name of the first computer and where it was located. 
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) the world's first operational, general purpose, electronic digital computer, developed at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania in 1945.
(102.17) Discuss ARPANET and when it was developed. 
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) of the U.S. DoD.

Dr. J.C.R. Licklider was chosen to head this effort...precursor to modern internet.

ARPANET connected UCLA to the Stanford Research Institute, UC Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah; there were three things that users could do: log into a remote computer, print to a remote printer, and transfer files between computers.
(102.18) Explain the impact of the John Walker espionage case. 
A retired warrant officer, John walker spied for the Russians from 1968-1985; allowed the Soviet Union to make SIGNIFICANT gains in naval warfare. 

His arrest was a catalyst for a huge investigation within the Intel Community that uncovered other spies as well.

A later result was the creation of the Director of Counterintelligence (CI) on the National Security Council (NSC).
102.19/102.20 State the oldest intelligence organization in the U.S. Navy, when it was established, and by who.
The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) was established in the United States Navy in 1882. 

ONI was founded by the Secretary of the Navy, William H. Hunt with General Order 292, dated March 23, 1882.
(102.21) State the first Chief Intelligence Officer/Director of Naval Intelligence (CIO/DNI). 
Theodorus Bailey Myers Mason ...
(prior to it being redesignated as Director of Naval Intelligence in 1911).
(102.22) Name the two departments that were combined to form the ONI. 
The Department Library was combined with the "Office of Intelligence" .