Digital Radiography And PACS

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Digital Radiography And PACS

Digital Radiography And Pacs

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earliest known calculating tool
blaise pascal
(june 1623- august 1662)
built a machanical calculator at the age of 16.
Gottfried Leibniz
worked on adding automatic multiplication adn division to pascals calculator.
charles babbage
concept of a programmalbe computer. "father of the computer"
charles babbage built
Difference engine
analytical engine
Herman Hollerith
machanism for machanical tabulation of punched card data.
Herman Hollerith
IBM in 1924
december 1943
Colossus. first operating computer.
1st general electronic computer. university of penn.
electronic numerical integrator and calculator
1948 william shockey
developed Transistor
UNIVAC, universal automatic computor
1st generation computers
operated by vacuum tubes
2nd Gen computers
based on individually packaged transistors
3rd Gen computers
Integrated Circuits
4th gen computers
Large scale integration
Very large-scale integration.
Digital Imaging
first used in Computed Tomography (CT)
Digital radiography
1980s, Fuji
Each cell in the image matrix/grid
Image matrix
layout of cells in rows and colums
image matrix size
total pixles= (# of rows) ( # of columns)
sharpness of image. more pixels=sharper image
mathematical formulas that tell system what image should be.
Digital imaging modalities
nuclear medicine
Cassettes consist of
2 intesifying screen speeds
Detail ("extremity") cassette: Screen speed=>100
Rare Earth Screen Cassettes: screen speed=> 400 or greater.
Detail intensifying screen
slow speed(100)
Excellent recorded detail
Pt. receives more radiation (no)
What is Recorded Detail
ability to see sharply any small areas of the anatomy.
Earth intensifying screen
faster speed 400 or more
less patient dose
decreased recorded detail
thorax,abdomen,pelvis,skull,facial bones, and contrast media exams.
Digital Imaging: Two Methods
Computed Radiography (CR)
Digital radiography (DR)
remnant image produce Latent image
intracts with phosphor IP or the DR imaging plate
components of CR
imaging plates, ADC processor, Technology Worksation
Imaging plate layers
active layer of photostimulable phospohr
protective layer
photomultiplier tube
converts light signal to electrical signal
CR technologist Workstation
CR is used where?
ICU ED or trauma center
High volume clinic setting
practical tips
Ip through erasure cycle if not used within 48 hours
to avoid latent image fading: precess within 1 hour of exposure.

direct digital radiography
flat panel of detectors, that are found in the imaging plate.
DR technologist workstation
x-ray tube
x-ray table
direct capture detector
Advantages of DR over CR
no cassettes
quicker processing time
dose reduction
Advantages of CR and DR
improvement of image quality
manipulation of image
less retakes
no loss of film
images can be put on CD or high quality paper
what is PACS
Picture Archiving and Communication System

computers dedicated to storage retrieval transporting displaying and printing of medical images.
referring to radiographic images and radioogy reports
refferring to film file storage
referencing mutiple viewers of images and reports at virtually unlimited viewing sites called workstations.
fostering the concept that a complex coordinated network makes it all possible.
digital imaging communications in medicine
standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical imaging.
PACS data flow
organizations must have tight integration between their HIS/RIS, the various modalities, and PACS
hospital information system
used to register, admit, transfer, and discharge patients
radiology information system
schedule and track exams, view reports and images
comibination of PACS with CR or DR
less repeats due to film loss
more time efficient
CR and DR
improving patient care with PACS