Developmental Psychology (7)

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contraints on learning
biased heuristic and privileged hypthesese that an animal uses when acquiring information about the world (necessary for learning)
core knowledge
privileged domains of knowledge that children learn easily by virtue of developing cognitive preparedness that is specific to those domains.  These domains reflect a fitness advantage in our evolutionary history
Domain specificity
-       the idea that many aspects of adult and child psychology are processed by specialized psychological processes that have been shaped by natural selection and focus on areas of knowledge that were fitness-related in the EEA
Piaget's age of object permanence
8 months, but to fully develop it takes up to the end of the sensorimotor stage (2 years)
experimental age of object peramence
5 months.  Also can distinguish information about the object, such as sound.  indicates we do have a mental representation, and that representation provides useful information such as size
experimental age of continuity
4 months, as long as the stimuli is moving (found through habituation paradigm)
experimental age of contact principle
6 months, Infants accept that people, but not balls can effect each other’s behaviour without contact.  found through violation of expectation paradigm
experiemental age for cohesion principle of objects
as young as 3 months, found through violation of expectation paradigm
stages and ages of support and gravity knowledge
3 months - understand that an object needs some contact with a solid support in order not to fall.
5 months - the understand that the contact has to be with the top of the support in order not to fall.
6 months of age-  the infant knows that the most of the bottom of the object needs to be supported in order not to fall.
experimental age of spatial location
5 months, using habituation paradigm
age of theory of inheritance
4-7 years of age
age of growth understanding
4-6 children understand that artifacts will stay the same.
children as young as 4 years understand the re-growth is expected after a living thing, but not an artifact.
4-5 year olds understand the growth is not optional
age of death understanding
4 years
age of understanding numerosity and arithmetic
5 months
age of understanding ordinality
18 months