Developmental Psych Exam #1 Chapter 1

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Developmental Psych Exam #1 Chapter 1

Developmental Psych Test On Chapters 1-2, And 4-7. The Test Is On Wednesday, Feb. 24th, 2010.

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Developmental Psychology 
What is Developmental Psychology?
It is the scientific study of how and why people change over time as well as how and why they remain the same. 
3 Domains of Change
1. Biosocial  - Changes in Brain2. Cognitive - Changes in Thinking3. Psychosocial - Interrelations between other people
Biosocial Development
Includes all the growth and change that occur in person's body and the genetic nutritional, and health factors that affect that growth and change. 
Cognitive Development
Includes all the mental processes that a person uses to obtain knowledge or to think about the environment. Cognition encompasses perception, imagination, judgement, memory, and language -- the process people use to think, decide, and learn.
Psychosocial Development
Includes development of emotions, temperament, and social skills. Family friends, the community, the culture, and the larger society are particularly central to the psychosocial domain.
Five Characteristics of Development
1. Multidirectional2. Multicontextual3. Multicultural4. Multidisciplinary5. Plasticity
Change occurs in every direction, not always in a straight line. Gains and losses, predictable growth and unexpected transformations, are evident. 
Human lives are embedded in many contexts, including historical conditions, economic constraints, and family patterns. 
Many cultures - not just between nations but also within them - affect how people develop. 
Numerous academic fields - especially psychology, biology, education, and sociology but also neuroscience, economics, religion, anthropology, history, genetics, and many more - contribute data and insights.
Every individual, and every trait within each individual, can be altered at any point in the life span. Changes ongoing, although neither random nor easy. 
Hypothetico-Deductive Method
How Science tries to answer questions.   Theory - Hypothesis - Data - Conclusions. 
General Scientific Methods
1. Observational2. Correlational3. Experimental
1. Naturalistic (Field Study): Observing a subject in natural environment, as little interaction as possible.2. Case Study: In-depth study of one individual or a small group of people.3. Survey: Sent out questions to a large number of individuals
Describes the relationship between two variables. Does not prove that one variable causes another.
A researcher manipulates one variable to determine if it has an effect on another variable while holding all other conditions constant. 
Independent Variable
The manipulated variable
Dependent Variable
Hypothesis: To be affected by the Independent variable
Experimental Group
Those getting the treatment/ method of focused concentration
Control Group
Same conditions except for the treatment. 
Random Assignment
Cannot have a true experiment without having subjects being randomly assigned to either groups. 
A task that is dependably consistent. 
 Task that measures what it is supposed to measure. Accuracy Valid test must be reliable, but a reliable test may not be valid
Longitudinal Design
A group of subjects is tested across time. The experiment must remain consistent. Example:  Caspi et al (1987,1988) Collected data saying kids who had anger grew up into angry adults, same with shy kids.
Weaknesses of Longitudinal design
Mortality, attrition - they dropped out of the program, Cohort effect - refers to people born at the same time and thus moved through life together, experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts.
Cross-Sectional Design
Different groups of people are studied at the same time, such as different age groups. 
Weaknesses of Cross-Sectional Design
Cannot look at change across time. Can get the cohort effect
Longitudinal-Sequential (Cross-Sequential)
Mix between the two. Different cohorts across time.Compare cohorts at the same time in their life to check for similarities or differences.
Weaknesses of Longitudinal-Sequential
You need to have the same test subjects and it is a long period of time. Mortality and attrition.