Crim 310 Final

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Crim 310 Final

Crim 310 Final Study Guide 

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Morality according to _______ arises from the fact that humans, as rational beings, impose laws and structures of behavior upon themselves.
Emmanuel Kant
Kohlberg's moral stages include all o the following
-pre coventional
- post conventional
A concept in which values and moral beliefs come from those one admires and aspires to identify with is:
______ can be defined as the responsibilities that are attached to a specific role.
What are values
measures of worth or priority
Ethical dilemmas are situations in which:
people must make a decision about something 
What ethical system woould best describe why an officer is maintains the code of silence in reference to other officers?
egoism/ ethics of care?
_______is a necessary element in law enforcement, but its need also leads to a greater dependence on individual ethical codes in place of rules and laws.
What is communtative justice
fairness of contracts and business relations
How many police vslues are there?
If a police officer tries to convenice a store owner not to press charges a against a poor elderly man shoplifting cartons of milk, the officer is practicing:
street justice
According to the text, the main reason for the blue curtain of secrecy in law enforcement is ______ to other officers.
Who exerts the strongest influence on the ethical climate of an agency?
the one in charge
If one views the police ss (a) _______ presumptions follow: that criminals are the enemey and different from good people; that police are the army that fights the enemy using any means necessaryto control, capture and punish them.
crime control force
______ ethics are an even more specific of applied ethics relating to the behavior of certain professions or groups.
What is an important criticism of the utilitarian ethical system?
no individual rights are considered
When individuals have discretion it is possible that individuals prejudices and perceptions of groups such as women, minorities and homosexuals influence decesion making.
Procedural is concerned with
steps taken to reach determination of guilt and punishment (due process)
According to Baelz, what characteristics must an ethical system contain?
(1) not self-serving
(2) logically impartial or universal
(3) authoratative 
(4) prescriptive
Corrective justice is concerned with
punishment and sanctions
What ethical system answers the question of: "What is good is that which benefits me?" 
What New York scandal involved officers taking bribes, using drugs and alcohol on duty, and taking personal belonging from corpses?
The buddy boys; Mollen commission
Toury Ohlin and Farrington found three major theoretical perspectives that address the orgin of delinquency
(1) attachment
(2) temparament
(3) social learning
Noble cause corruption is justified by which  ethical system?
Testilying is a euphemism for what police practice?
Noble cause corruption is likely motivated by 
end justifies the means
Which ethical problem is least associated with the proactive investigations
perjury or testimony
Which of the following is not included in Barker and Carter's typology of lies
-accepted lies
-deviant lies
-tolerated lies
The objective test for entrapment
in whose mind did it originate from/ defense
Integrity testing of police is similar to what law enforcement tactic used against criminals?
Integrity testing refers to which police management tactic?
sting operations 
What police lead body investigate civilian claims of police wrongdoing?
internal affairs
The public didtrust of lawyers can be traced back to
Greek historians
The description of the justice system as two advocates engaing in the pursuit of the truth guided by a neutral third party 
ideal justice system
the model of judicial processing that prioritzes efficiency over truth is
bureaucratic justice 
the belief that loyalty to one's client surpasses individual and private decision making id characteristic of
legal agent theory
The statement "i am person first, a lawyer second" is
moral agent theory
The primary duty of a defense attorney is
plea bargaining
The predominant public  image of defense attorneys is that of
The term fast food lawyers refers to
volume and speed
Whose interests do prosecutors represent
Which factor would be unethical for a prosecutor to consider in making charging decisions
identity of the victim
Prosecutors that are part time may be more prone to what type of prosecutorial misconduct than full-time prosecutors
confict of interests
What word describes the prosecutorial practice of confiscating property and money associated with certain criminal activites?
Which term describes the ethically questionable practice that prosecutors use during the process of plea bargaining
charge bargaining
One of the primary ethical problems with plea bargaining is that
it subverts due process
The ethical concern regarding expert witnesses is about whether theyare really
non biaseed and independent
Making deals with defendants in exchange for favorable testimony is one form of
plea bargaining
The rationale for punisment that is associated with the offender achieving slavation is
What from of prevention is aimed at people other than the defender?
general deterrence
Detaining only those who are at the highest risk of offending or re-offending is a form of 
selective incapacitation
Which ethical system would only support punishments that seek to balance the needs of the  offender and the victims?
ethics of care
the primary ethical argument aganst private corrections is 
profit leads to abuse
What other criminal justice professional is most like the correctional officer
police officer
court decisons have limited what aspect of correctional officer's duty
The term pluralistic ignorance describes
vocal minority create the belief of the majority
What term best describes the general relationship between correctional officers and inmates 
uneasy justice
the interdependence that may develop between correctional officers and the inmates that is characterized by favoritism is called
what is the definition of justice
-appropriate rewards and punishments
Paternalistic laws
-wear seatbelts
- helmet when riding a bike
Examples of noble cause corruption
planting or fabricating evidence, lying on reports or in court, and generally abusing police authority to make a charge stick.
Methods of prevention
- deterrence
Good correctional officer
- all inmates equally no favoritism
-not follow rules to the t
-use discretion
-not afraid to use force when neede