Corynebacteria, Listeria, Clostridium, Bacillus (Gram+ Rods)

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Gram + Rods - Spore Forming & Non-Spore Forming

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How does the diptheria toxin affect human cells?
Diptheria toxin = an Exotoxin encoded for by a Phage (transduction).  Enters cell and inhibits protein synthesis (so it is like a Anti-human Antibiotic).
How does the DPT Vaccine inhibit the Corynebacterium from infecting cells?
It produces an antibody for the B-subunit toxin (this attaches to the host cell).  So B-subunit doesn't work and it can't infect.  
What is 1 clinical presentation of Diptheria?
A thick greyish-white Exudate on the Pharynx - along with fever and sore throat.  Also could affect the heart (Myocarditis) and Neural involvement.
A culture is Gram-stained and results are Gram+ rods that look like "chinese letters".  What is the best treatment for this?
This is Diptheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae).  Rx with the Antitoxin and Erythromycin.
What is the major virulent factor of Listeria?
Listeriolysin O.  
What populations/patients should you be concerned with when dealing with a Listeria infection?
Pregnant Woman (septicemia, spont. abortion).  Neonates (meningitis).  Elderly and Immunocompromised (meningitis).
What is the best treatment for Listeria infection?
How would you contract a Listeria infeciton?
Contaminated dairy products.  It is located in soil, vegetation - cows could eat it.  
If I sniff your vagina and it smells like FISH and we are not screwing around - what would I tell you that you have?
Gardnerella vaginalis.  "Vaginitis"
What is Erysipeloid?
Infection of E.rhusiopathiae - a slowly spreading painful rash.
What is the most severe clinical disease of a Bacillus infection?
Pulmonary Anthrax.  Incubation Pd of 1-43 days.  Sore throat, pharyngitis, cough, hemorrhage of blood vessels.
Is Bacillus anthracis transmitted via inhalation, cutaneously, or eaten?
TRICK, got ya bitch!  All 3!
What is the difference in toxins between Bacillus antracis and Bacillus cereus?
B.antracis has EXOtoxins - Protective Antigen, Lethal Factor, Edema Factor.  B.cereus is caused by ENTEROtoxins - which cause Food Poisoning.
What is the clinical sign of a cutaneous anthrax contraction?
Black Lesions on the skin.  These represent the necrosis that the bacteria is causing in the blood (bacteria is contracted, multiplies in macrophages, and is released into blood where it causes damage thruout body).  
What three types of Botulism can a patient obtain?
Adult Botulism (canned foods, fish), Infant Botulism ("floppy baby", spores in honey), Wound Botulism (organism gets into wound).
What is the difference in toxin action between Botulism and Tetanus?
Botulism toxin = nuerotoxin, which inhibits Ach release at NMJ and causes flaccid paralysis.  Tetanus toxin = Tetanospasmin, which inhibits the inhibitory glycine and GABA at the NMJ (causes a sustained muscle contraction).  
Which Clostridium possess the Alpha toxin?
Gas Gangrene (C.perfringens)
What is the best treatment for C.diff?
Remove causative Antibiotic and give Vancomycin.
What are some clinical characteristics of Tetanus?
Sustained muscle spasms.  Lockjaw.  Risus Sardonicus (freaky grimace on face that won't go away).
What is a secondary disease of C.perfringens?
FOOD poisoning (due to an Enterotoxin).  Also, Clostridial Endometritis in mother's post-partum - infection can move to uterus and spread.