Comparative Politics - Mexico And India

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5 characteristics of NIC's
1) emerging democracy; 2) improving state structure; 3) economic transformation; 4) urbanization; 5) improving quality of life; 6) new regional and global influence
motivations for colonization (4)
1) settlement; 2) extraction of resources; 3) strategic advantage; 4) religious
non-aligned countries
countries seeking to avoid taking sides in the Cold War
Mexico's political culture
tension between democracy and authoritarianism; continuing revolution; strong sense of nationalism; hierarchy and elitism; corporatism; centralism and corruption; machismo
5 features of Mexico's constitution
1) economic nationalism (limits of foreign government); 2) only Mexicans allowed to own land; 3) state owns all resources; 4) catholic church not allowed to own land; 5) president limited to one 6 yr term; 6) very easy to change
economic reasons that Mexico feels dependent on U.S.
all debt ($212 billion) owed to U.S. banks; 90% of Mexican exports go to U.S. and 55% of imports come from U.S.; U.S. companies account for 70% of foreign investment
Mexico's foreign policy
nonalignment in Cold War; Universalism - recognizing any government regardless of ideology or means of coming to power; support for leftist movements in Latin America
political culture of India
dominant state; rural villages far removed from national politics; structural violence in the form of extreme poverty and physical violence prevalent in politics; inequality and caste oppression; rising expectations
What happened to India and Pakistan when the gained their independence from Great Britain?
Ghandi wanted a united India, but the Muslims wanted to separate into Pakistan; One of the largest migrations in human history of Hindu from Pakistan area and Muslims from India. More than 1 million died; 20 millions Hindus remained in Pakistan and 40 million Muslims remain in India. Third largest Muslim population of any country; Indonesia is largest, Pakistan is second; Disagreement arose over disputed territory of Kashmir; Areas were allocated on basis of religion; Kashmir had a Hindu leader but a predominately Muslim population. The leader aligned with India; Promised referendum never held;  3 wars have occurred between India & Pakistan and numerous conflicts.
What is the caste system and why is it still problematic for India?
It is a Hindu belief that there is a social order that everyone is born into based on their past lives.  Though officially outlawed, the caste system is still very much alive throughout India, especially in the rural areas which are quite often forgotten about politically.
Describe the Nehru-Gandhi dynasty
Nehru-Gandhi ruled for all but 4 of the first 42 years of independence. There was a lot of tragedy in that family, including many deaths and assasinations.  They are often related to the Kennedys.
good things about India's economy
5th largest economy (by some estimates 9th) in absolute terms but GDP of $3,700; Poverty has remained stable in spite of huge population growth; Life expectancy of 63 years; Literacy for men up to 82% from 15% (women still at 65%) ; Economy grown 200 fold since independence; GDP growth rate of 8% ; Self sufficient in food, many consumer goods & basic commodities; 90% self-sufficient in energy needs; Industrial base larger than many European countries; Increasing foreign investment (although not as much as China); Low inflation;  Several large MNCs; Growing middle class;  Bollywood
bad things about India's economy
2 out of every 5 poor people in the world are in India; According to the World Bank 41% live on less than $1.25 a day; They will overtake China in population in 2030; Many problems result from reliance on Soviet-styel 5 year economic plans and state ownership of many industries.  Currently, communits blocking further sale of state-owned industries; Overregulation; command economy to large public sector that was overmanned, uncompetitve, and inefficient.  Labor laws also not conducive to a thriving economy; Benfits from economic growth not evenly felt, gap between rich and poor continues to grow; rural villages are largely bypassed