COMM Exam 2

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COMM Exam 2

Comm Exam

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Managing Uncertainty 
Uncertainty- when ______ are violated
when we receive information that reduces uncertainty, we are more ______ that we understand _____, _____, and ______
confident, ourselves, other people, the world around us
uncertainty= the inablility to 
predict or explain someone's attitudes or behaviors 
high uncertainty- feeling ____ or ______ about the ability to predict or explain one's attitude and behaviors 
unsure or insecure
low uncertainty- feeling _____ in their ability to predict and explain behaviors 
self uncertainty- people's own feelings about 
how involved they want to be in a relationship 
partner uncertainty- feeling uncertain about 
partner's feelings and intentions, including whether their partner reciprocates their feelings 
relationship uncertainty- uncertainty about 
state of the relationship, relationship definitions, future of the relationship, types of behavior that are acceptable 
uncertainty reduction theory- first comm theory to focus on ______, most commonly applied to understand in relational contexts 
people generally ______ uncertainty, therefore motivated to ______ it 
dislike, reduce 
have to get to know people better to 
reduce uncertainty
uncertainty associated with 
uncertainty with a partner linked to 
predicted outcome value theory- people are 
not driven by a need to reduce uncertainty in all cases
outcome values- relate to people's predictions about how _______ or ______ future interactions with a particular person would be 
rewarding, unrewarding 
high outcome value- when people are perceived to be more ________ than other potential partners 
low outcome value- when people are perceived to be less _____ than other potential partners 
initially reduce uncertainty as a way to find out how we feel about a person, then _____ or _____ ____ _____ becomes the driving force behind whether we try to seek further information 
positive, negative outcome value 
outcome value is positive= motivated to 
reduce uncertainty 
outcome value is negative= 
not motivated to redcue uncertainty 
motivation to reduce uncertainty varies from 
person to person 
people with high need for closure= ____and _____
seize and freeze
people with uncertainty orientation= engage in more 
uncertainty oriented individuals tend to ___ ____ in situations of elevated uncertainty= the dating scene
fair better
certainty oriented- hesitate to ____ _____ but more satisfied in _____
initiate relationships, relationships 
certainty oriented= more ____ for partners
uncertainty oriented= adjust their predictions with ____ _____, hinders _____
new information, trust
uncertainty management theory- uncertainty is not ___ or ____, but something that is 
good, bad, managed
uncertainty only produced negative emotions when not having information is perceived as 
we sometimes prefer to keep a level of uncertainty in _____  especially when reducing uncertainty can lead to ____ _____
relationships, negative information 
cross sex friendships- uncertainty is ____ and ____ (whether romantic potential exists) 
accepted, preferred 
relationships that stagnate usually characterized by a lack of 
dialectics theory- people have _______ personal needs 
dialectics= stability vs _____, connections to others vs _____, certainty vs _______
excitement, independence, uncertainty
we want a bit on each end of the dialectic- want both excitement and _____ in relationships 
theory of motivated information management- people prefer _____ in some situations and _____ in others
certainty, uncertainty
decision to reduce uncertainty depends on ______ ____ and ____ ___
outcome expectancy, efficiency assessments
outcome expectancy- whether the outcome of the information search is expected to be 
positive or negative
efficiency assessments- whether people feel they are able to ___ ____ and ___ ___ ___
gather information, cope with it 
motivation to aquire relationship- threatening information- knowing partner's relationally threatening thoughts causes _____ and ____ ____
personal and relational stress 
people who are more inclined to seek relationship threatening information are more likely to have ____ relationships 
strategies for reducing uncertainty- ____, ____, and ____
passive, active, interactive
passive strategies- ______ of individuals 
passive observation more effective when ____ ____ and 
informal setting, interacting with others 
active strategies- manipulating ____ ____ and seeing how someone reacts 
social environment 
asking ___ ___ about the person in question 
third parties 
interactice strategies- direct contact between ____ and ____
information seeker, target
includes _____ _____, _____ ____, and _____ the target
asking questions, encouraging disclosure, relaxing the target
can be through _______ cues- _____ or _______
non verbal, smiling, eye contact 
secret tests for uncertainty reduction include- 
asking third party, directness test, triangle test, separation tests, endurance tests, public presentation tests, indirect suggestion test
asking third party test=
feedback from social network members
directness test- 
taking about the issue with the partner
triangle test
test the partner's committment, jealousy tests, secret admirer note
separation test
long physical break or ceasing contact and waiting to see how long it takes for a partner to call
endurance test
increases cost or reduces reward of relationship- partner becomes argumentative, dresses down
public presentation test
watching for reaction when introduced as boyfriend/ girlfriend
indirect suggestion test
hinting or joking to bring up a topic without taking direct responsibility 
majority of uncertainty reduction strategies are 
most indirect relationship is 
friendship with romantic potential 
direct strategies include 
integrative communication, arguing/ making accusations, avoidance
high levels of intimacy= more likely to use 
positive and direct behaviors 
people are most likely to respond positively when 
relationship was previously satisfying, partner was previously considered to be rewarding, event produced low levels of uncertainty, the event did not represent a highly negative violation of expectancies
behaviors that increase uncertainty= 
competing relationships, unexplained loss of contact or closeness, sexual behavior, deception, change in personality or value, betraying confidence
competing relationships- 
a friend or dating partner wants to spend more time with someone else
unexplained loss of contact
communication decrease for no reason 
sexual behavior
discovering that a friend/ dating partner enganged in sexual behavior with another person
discovering friend/ dating partner had lied
change in personality or value
people realized their friend/ dating partner was different from who they used to be 
betraying confidences-
instances in which people's friends or dating partners disclosed private information about them 
expectancy violations theory- _______ vs _______ expectancies 
predictive, prescriptive
predictive expectancies- tell people what to _____ in a given situation based on 
expect, what normally occurs in that context or relationship 
prescriptive expectancies- tell people what to _______ based on 
expect, general rules of appropriateness 
3 factors affect expectancies
communicator characteristics, relational charactersitics, context 
communicator characteristics- refer to 
individual differences- age, gender, ethnic background, personality traits 
relational characteristics- refer to 
how close we are with someone, what type of relationship we share, what types of shared experiences 
context- _______ _____ and ___ ______
social situation, cultural influence 
intergroup uncertainty reduction= make it more likely that 
uncertainty will be reduced in intercultural interactions 
people who identify strongly with their own culture group feel 
more confident about interactions with people from another culture 
when people perceive members of another culture favorably, they are likely to 
look forward to interacting with them 
according to expectancy violation theory, response will be contigent on ___ and ____
positive or negative interpretation of the behavior, the rewardingness of the partner 
when unexpected behavior is more satisfying than expected behavior 
positive violation 
when the unexpected behavior is perceived to be less positive than the expected behavior 
negative violation 
nonrewarding communicators are evaluated the most highly if 
they stay within the norms and avoid violating expectations 
rewarding communicators= positive expectancy violations produce 
better outcomes than expectancy confirming 
common expectancy violations in relationships 
criticism or accusation, relationship escalation, relationship de-escalation, uncharacteristic relational behavior, uncharacteristic social behavior, transgressions, acts of devotion, acts of disregard, gestures of inclusion
many expectancy violantions reduce 
model of relational turbulence- turbulence during transition from 
casual dating to committment 
turbulence comes from partners' efforts to renogotiate levels of 
relational uncertainty peaks in ______ of relationships 
turbulence comes from 
uncertainty in increasing committment and irritations from partners who come in the way of a person's goals 
model of relational uncertainty- includes ____, ___ and ___ uncertainty 
self, partner, relational 
2 parts of the process- 
foundations, oucomes 
foundations- characteristics of ____,____, and _____
individuals, relationships, situations 
individual characteristics= personality differences with managing 
relational qualities= face-to-face vs 
long distance 
outcomes- types of outcomes include 
cognitive, emotional, and communicative 
cognitive outcomes- include 
hightened awareness of partner characteristics and filtered perceptions of partners behavior 
emotional outcomes- relational uncertainty= 
negative emotion 
communicative outcomes- uncertainty= 
less willingnes to be direct, topic avoidance 
research suggests we are more likely to develop relationships with people we are 
exposed to more often 
common long distance problems include- 
unfounded jealousy, losing touch with your partner by not sharing information and feelings on a regualr basis 
chances of success are better when 
both parties are committed to making it work, if the relationship is firmly established before separation, both parties are willing to talk, both try to achieve co-presence as much as possible 
more satisfaction, less uncertainty, less distress when partners are certain that 
they will eventually reunite
in LDR, making plans both ___ ____ and ___ ____ 
enables relationships, constrains experiences 
making plans as denial= ensures future time spent will be ____, not _____
satisfying, wasted (certainty)
sexual intimicy is ____/____
pressured, scheduled 
making plans as balance= planning for conversations that have 
uncertain outcomes, cause anxiety 
making plans as segmentation= working on individual goals when separated but planing ____ ___ __ when together 
focused couple time 
Case study: Hitch
passive strategies used by Hitch= 
getting info from bar tender, watching her with another guy 
Hitch is more successfu than her other suitor because 
listens, pays attention, exceeds expectations 
Sara has the power to ____/____, then power shift
punish/ reward
Culture in notes 
core difficulty in cross-cultural interactions= failure to recognize 
relevant cross cultural differences 
confusion created by two aspects of culture: 
subject culture, objective culture 
subject culture- _____ features of culture inclduing 
psychological, values, patterns of thinking, assumptions 
objective culture- the _____ and ____ of culture such as 
artifacts, institutions, social customs, political structures, processes, art, literature 
perception- the process of making sense of your ____ and _____ world, how you convert events into 
physical, social, understanding 
reality is built out of certain _____ commonly shared among members of the same culture 
cultural assumptions- concepts which pervade a person's _____ and _____, define what is real 
outlook, behavior 
American cultural assumptions= 
freedom, culture, democracy, American dream, materialism 
beliefs are ____ for the content of past experiences= 
storage, thoughts, memories, interpretations of events
beleifs are commonly accepted as 
beleifs are so much a part of culture that you don't _____ or ____ ____ 
question, demand proof 
beliefs form basis of 
values are shared cultural ideas about what is ____, ____ and ____
true, right, beautiful 
culture values are _____ and refer to goodness, desirability, etc
_____-> ______->______-> _______
belief, values, attitudes, behaviors 
Intercultural Communication Competence 
culture is a learned set of shared interpretations about ____, ____, and ____ which affect ______ of a large group of people 
beliefs, values, norms, beliefs 
focus is commonality  of group behaviors, not necessarily ____/____, can be 
race/ ethnicity, elderly, athletes, sexual orientations 
important qualities of ICC- 
motivation and attitude, tolerance of ambiguity
motivation and attitude- desire to ___ ___ ____ and having ___ ___ ways of thinking 
communicate successfuly with strangers, culture general 
tolerance of ambiguity- acceptance of high 
uncertainty/ ambiguity 
Key factors= ____, _____, and ______
motivation, intercultural knowlege, and skills in implementing 
Culturally Competent Communication 
5 critical communication elements 
communication repetoire, situational awareness, self awareness, adaptability, knowlege about core cultural issues 
communication repetoire
your skills to produce culturally appropriate communication behavior 
situational awareness- 
being able to attend conversational cues, to recognize misunderstandings rooted in assumptions and awkwardness
self awareness
your own cultural identity and beliefs as well as stereotypes about other people's 
ability to adapt to cultural and personal features during encounter
knowledge about core cultural issues- 
knowledge of stereotypes and norms
Pros of CCC
improves communication, improves cultural knowledge, help decrease uncertainty in relationships
Cons of CCC
could lead to over generalization, sometimes difficult to practice, don't know which patterns to spotlight/ ignore 
culture influences how we 
respond to people we meet and have relationships with them
Dimensions of cultural difference
locus of control, action orientation, attitudes toward time, connections to others, communication styles, power distance, uncertainty avoidance
locus of control=
control cultures vs constraint cultures 
control cultures- 
people control their own destinies, hard work pays off 
constraint cultures
people are at the mercy of fate, acceptance is valued
action oriented=
doing cultures vs being cultures 
doing cultures 
what you do is important, success measured by accomplishments 
being cultures
who you are is important, success measured by quality of life
attitudes toward time
monochromatic time cultures vs polychromatic time cultures 
M time cultures
time should be scheduled and organized, time is money 
P time cultures
time should unfold at its own pace, many matters can be handled at once, haste makes waste
connections to others= 
individualist vs collectivist cultures
individualist cultures
individual is more important than group, standing out is valued, squeaky wheel gets grease
collectivist culture 
group more important than individual, fitting in is valued, uneven nail gets hammered down 
communication styles 
low context vs high context 
low context 
meaning is in words, clarity prevents mistakes, say what you mean
high context
read between the lines, ambiguity to save face
power distance 
high power distance vs low power distance
high power distance
power is a part of society, people are unequal, everyone has rightful place, importance of status and rank 
low power distance
minimizing distinction between social classes, people are equal, challenging authority is acceptable and desireable 
uncertainty avoidance 
high tolerance for uncertainty vs low tolerance for uncertainty
high tolerance
unthreatened by change, more likely to tolerate and welcome people who don't fit the norm, comfortable with novelty 
low tolerance 
new situations are discomforting, deviant ideas are dangerous, need for defined rules and regulations 
CH. 5
Initiating and Intensifying Relationships 
5 types of communication that help people build relationships with new friends and romantic partners
relationship initiation, self disclosure, emotional support, negative assertion, and conflict management skills 
skill at initiating relationships= 
feel comfortable introducing themselves, issuing invitations= build more rewarding social networks 
skill in self disclosure= 
revealing personal information gradually, gradual increase in depth 
skill in the provision of emotional support
being able to listen empathetically, offer advice that is well received
responsiveness- shows _____, ____ and ____, _____ centered communication style
care, concern, liking , other centered 
skills in negative assertion
being able to say no to a friend's request, stand up for one's rights in a relationship 
skill in conflict management 
better able to listen to partner, understand partner's perspective, refrain from communicating hostile feelings 
friendship formation strategies- ______ is an important factor in determining whether a relationship is formed 
need for proximity reduced by 
online social networking
self disclosure- occurs when 
people reveal something about themselves to others 
social penetration theory- self disclosure usually ____ ___ as people develop relationships 
increases gradually 
how deep the communication is 
how many topics a person feels free to discuss
3 basic layers of self disclosure 
superficial layer, social layer, core layer 
how often people self disclose
how long people self disclose 
frequent self disclosure can lead to 
liking and relational development 
self disclosures of limited frequency and long duration= 
stranger on the plane example 
positive or negative charge of self disclosure 
how honest or deceptive self disclosure is 
risks of self disclosure- we become 
vulnerable to criticism
4 risks include 
fear of exposure/ rejection, fear of retaliation/ angry response, fear of loss of control, fear of losing one's individualtiy 
disclosure-liking hypothesis- when a sender discloses to a receiver, 
the receiver will like the sender more 
liking-disclosure hypothesis- people will disclose more to 
people they like 
when self disclosure violates normative expectations, it will 
not lead to liking- too much disclosore too soon or negative disclosure 
dyadic effect- 
reciprocal disclosure= when a person reveals information and the partner responds with information that is a similar level of intimacy 
people who violate norm of reciprocity are viewed as 
cold, unfriendly, untrustworthy
recipricity= more relationship 
social penetration theory- stages are (Altman and Taylor)
orientation, exploratory exchange, affective exchange, stable exchange
stages in Knapp and Vangelisti's model 
initiating, experimenting, intensifying, integrating, and bonding
initiating stage= 
orientation stage
initiating stage- ____ level of disclosure, ____ valence, 
superficial, positive 
experimenting stage= 
exploratory affective exchange stage
experimenting stage- increasing _____ and ____ but low _____
breadth, frequency, depth
small talk- communication that is high in ____ but low in _____
breadth, depth 
partners either trust each other and begin to disclose more _____ or terminate 
intensifying stage= 
affective exchange stage
intesifying stage- _____ self disclosure, long, in depth conversations, affectionate ___ _____, using ___ instead of ____, terms of endearment/ commitment 
negative, nonverbals, we/ I
integrating stage= 
stabe exchange stage
integrating stage- presenting themselves as a _____, complete each other's sentences, opinions may ______
couple, merge
stable exchange stage- people disclose openly about 
complete self disclosure may not be possible/ 
bonding stage- partners declare committment ______, usually though 
publicly, marriage
people do not always move through these stages in 
orderly manner 
First dates- in 19th century, courtship involved ____ inviting ____ to their homes
women, men
20th century, ____ began to replace _____
dating, calling
today, _____ in initiating position 
when women initiate dates- more expectation for ___ ____, percieved to be ___ ___
sexual activity, less attractive
expectations and goals on first dates=
having fun, reducing uncertainty, investigating romantic potential, developing friendship, engaging in sexual activity
good date= when people have similar 
cohabitation= optinal stage in courtship sequence, may or may not end in 
relationship stability- marital relationships more stable than 
selection effect- people who choose to cohabit rather than marry have characteristics that make it less likely for 
relationship to last
couples who cohabit before marriage are more likely to 
get divorced
relational quality- cohabiors who planned to get married were just as satisfied as 
married couples
communication patterns- married couples reported 
least conflict
cohabitors reported mroe 
cohabiting can lead to good communication and high satisfaction when the couple plans to 
turning point= any event or occurance associated with 
change in the relationship 
turning point approach- emphasizes events that have 
the strongest effect on relationships
relationships are not linear, follow a ___ path
turning point analysis- map that depicts the ___ and ___ of a relationship 
ups, downs
communication based turning points- get to know time= ____ interactions, quantity rather than quality of communication 
quality communication- special times when two people have ___ ____ interaction, _____ and ____ conversation 
high quality, long and intimate
turning point can be activity or ___ ____
special occassion
passionate events- include
first kiss, "I love you", sex 
romantic relationship transitions- point in time when relationships transitions from ____ to _____
platonic, romantic 
exclusivity- when people decide to date only 
each other, drop other rivals 
external competition- when a person feels threatened by a ___ ___ or _____
third party, activity that is taking partner's time
serious committment- events such as 
moving in together, getting married 
change in household configuration, new family members, and interference from a ____ ____ in friendships 
romantic partner 
set of turning points deals with proximity and distance= separation and 
disengagement and conflict- includes a couple's first ___ ____, atempts to withdraw from the relationship, and break up
big fight
times of crisis- includes 
illness, death, accidents, major financial problems 
perceptual changes- include positive and negative psychic change- change in perception without 
any real reason 
CH. 6
Communicating closeness
level of closeness determined by ____, ____ and ___
physical closeness, emotional closeness, and relational closeness
physical closeness- amount of ____ ____ people have 
physical contact
emotional closeness- sense of ____ _____and ____
shared experiences, caring 
relational closeness- ____ people share
closeness is reflected in 3 types of communication= 
affectionate communication, immediacy behavior, and social support 
affectionate communication- behavior that portrays feelings of ______ and ____ _____
fondness, positive regard
paradox of affection- showing affection too early/ too much affection can 
scare potential romantic partners away 
Direct and verbal affectionate communicaiton includes
self disclosure, direct emotional expressions, compliments and praise, assurances
self disclosure- communicating _____ about 
openly, one's feelings
direct emotional expression- phrases such as
I love you, you make me happy
compliments and praise- communictes ____ ____ for someone
positive regard
asurances- also called ____ _____, direct messages about ____ ______ in a relationship 
relationship talk,  commitment level 
direct and nonverbal affectionate communication- includes
physical contact and distancing, eye behavior, vocalic behavior 
social meaning model of nonverba communication- some nonverbal behaviors have strong ___ ____ across ____ ____
consentual meanings, different contexts
affectionate physcial contact= examples are 
holding hands, hugging, kissing 
eye behavior- eye contact can 
promote affection 
vocalic behavior- ____ ____ voice perceived to be more affection 
higher pitched voice
indirect and nonverbal affectionate communication include
support behaviors, idiomatic behaviors 
support behaviors- giving someone ___ or ____ _____
emotional, instrumental support 
used more commonly in 
male friendships, father son relationships 
idiomatic behavior- have a ____ ____ only to 
specific meaning, people in a particular relationship 
affection exchange theory- based on the idea that affectionate communication is ____ ______ behavior because it helps obtain 
biologically adaptive, resources
people who display affectionate communication more likely to be seen as having skills to be 
a good parent= potential mate, reproductive capacity 
people are motivated to show affection to serve two basic needs- 
viability and fertility
viability- relates to motive to 
fertility- relates to motive to 
benefits of giving and recieving affection include
better mental health, less stress, better physical helath 
more kissing in relationships= 
less stress, more satisfaction
affectionate comm in families- naive theory of affection= adult children see affection as 
a limited resource for which they compete
people show more affection when they share a ____ or _____ bond 
genetic, sexual 
immediacy behaviors- actions that ____ ____ and promote 
signal warmth, promote involvement 
also called 
positive involvement behaviors 
verbal immediacy- includes
word choice, forms of address, depth of disclosure, relationships indicators
word choice- saying ___ instead of ___
we, I 
forms of address- ___ address, using _______
casua, nicknames
depth of disclosure- close relationsihps are characterized by ___ rather than ____ interactions
deep, superficial 
relationship indicators- calling someone ______/ _____ or ____ _____
girlfriend, boyfriend, bestfriend 
nonverbal immediacy- indicators include
oculesic behaviors, proxemics, haptics, kinesics, vocalics, chromenic behaviors 
oculesics- high level of eye contact= ______ and _____
attentiveness, involvement 
proxemics- the way people use _____ signals the level of closeness in a relationship 
facing someone ______ is immediate
haptics- closest relationships= high level of 
_____ and ______ are immediate
hugs, kisses
kinesics- body movements such as 
smiling, noding, posture
_____ body positions are immediate
body synchrony- intimate couples show high levels of _______ _______
coordinated movement 
vocalics- _______ ______ is immediate
baby talk
chronemics- the way people use
spending time with a person sends a message that the person is ________
cognitive valence theory- helps explain why people respond positively or negatively to increases in _______
cognitive valencers include=
culture, personality, the rewardingness of the partner, the relationship, the situation, temporary states
behavior- close relationships begin with one person increasingly 
perception- behaviors must be ______ to be effective
arousal- immediacy behaviors are stimulating, increase ______ ______
physiological arousal 
moderate arousal= ______, rapid arousal increases=_______
positive, negative
cognition- determinig if the increase in immediacy is appropriate based on the ____ ______
cognitive valencers
relational outcomes- negative valencing for any of the cogntive valencers can lead to 
decreased relational closeness
comfort and social support- types include 
invisible support, person centered messages, nonverbal immediacy, 
invisible support phenomenon- support attempts that go unnoticed by recipients are 
the most effective
practical support= giving 
concrete advice
emotional support= helping partner 
feel better
responsiveness- the degree to which a message communicates ____, _____ and ____ of one's partner
understanding, caring, validation
person centered messages- acknowledge and validate the ______ of the other person 
nonverbal immediacy- has strong effect on ____ ______
comforting quality
examples are 
hugs, close proxemic distance, facial expressions, pats, attentiveness
sex differences in expression of closeness- women are more -____ _____ than men 
nonverbally immediate
women's relationships have more _____ _____ and ____ ___
emotional expression, self disclosure
expressive friendships- involve ____ ____ nonverbals and verbal comm, showing nonverbal affection
emotionally charged
agentic friendship- focus on _____ and ___ ____
companionship, shared activities
women would rather ____ ___, men would rather ___ _____
just talk, do things
preferences for cross-sex frienships= closing the gap between men and women's ____ _____
communication styles 
internet relationships 
romantic relationships developed on the internet form ___ ____ and develop ___ ____ than tradidional relationships 
more easily, more rapidly
cyberspace couples have ______ frequency of comm than face to face couples
less of a ___ ____ than real space couples 
linear form