Child Psychology Test 1

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Child Psychology

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What are fontanelles?
soft spots between plates of skull
What is the first cell division?
What is the scientific method and why is it important?
Strategy for understanding  natural world that involves acquiring information by making direct systematic observations (collecting data) that are objective and quantifiable and occur under well-specified conditions that are replicable.
Developmental Phylogenesis
changes in a species behavior over the course of evolution
Develpmental ontogenesis
changes in individual's behavior over course of their lifetime
"Nature is our nurture"
Modifiable brain and long childhood are product of evolution- long childhood allows children to learn about their specific environment and take advantage of brain that is modifiable.
What is a reciprocal interaction? What does it involve?
The child provides the structures of development, and the environment provides the functions.1. Genetic or constitutional makeup2. what child has learned via past experiences (learning history)3. Current physiological/Motivative Conditions4. Current environmental conditions
What do species atypical experiences and environments help clearly illustrates about behavior?
Organisms are adaptive, behavior is functional
development does not occur in a straight line
Where is the genetic material located?
How many chromosome does a body cell contain?
23 pairs (46) chromosomes
Structure of DNA
Nucleotides (backbone) + base-pairs:Aderine - ThymineGuanine - cytosine
How does DNA replicate?
DNA unzips and each single strand acts as a template. 
How do sex cells replicate?
Meiosis. Crossing over occurs, mixing up genetic material. New pairs divide into 2 daughter cells, with 23 pairs of chromosomes (random assortment determines which member of each pair will end up in each cell. 2 Daughter cells divide w/o copying chromosomes.Result 4 cells each with 23 single chromosomes
Mendelian genetics
Single gene inheritance
Recessive gene disorder
if inherits 2 recessive genes for disorder from parents, it will be expressed
Sex linked disorders
Recessive gene on X chromosome expressed b/c the Y chromosome is only 1/3 as long and lacks corresponding allele to override X
Polygenetic inheritance
Genetic influence on behavioral/psychological characteristics appears to be the result of many genes in interaction with the environment.
Development is product of reciprocal interactions between:
1. genetic/constitutional makeup2. past experiences (learning history)3. Current physicological conditions4. current environmental conditions
Strengths/limitations of twin studies.
Similarities indicates genetic influences.
But doesn't identify the important interaction between genes and environment
Rubber band model
Genes play a passive role.
Niche-Picking Model
Genetic influence increases with age. (environment becomes increasingly passive)Genes actively influence envionment
Bidirectional interactions model (Epigenetic)
Genes and environment are both always active
first 2 weeks. by 36 hrs first cell division. Enters uterine cavity, blastocyst. then implantation
Embryonic period
foundation for all internal and external structures formed. total mass has increased 2 million %
Fetal period
Period of growth/refinement. Dramatic growth. reflexes, brain cells, weight.
Effect of taratogens depend on...
Timing of exposure. Gets less sensitive with age.
sperm reaches egg in fallopian tube
First cell specialization
Monozygotic vs. Dizygotic twins
Monozytic = one sperm & one eggDizygotic = two sperm & two eggs
Non-genetic agents that can cause abnormal prenatal development. 
What are some common teratogens?
Infections, nutrition, illegal drugs, smoking, alcohol, paraental age.
What does timing have to do with teratogens?
effects of teratogens depend on the timing of exposure
Phases of Labor
Apgar exam
Primary physical/behavioral screen. 77% of newborns get 8-10.
Risk factors for developmental problems
Non facilitative Maternal and Family ChacteristicsPre-term and/or Low Birth WeightPoor performance on neonatal assessment
Senses at birth
Touch: can feel painSmell: show facial expression to bad smells at birthTaste: 2 hrs old, prefer sweet tasteHearing: fetus can hear by 25 weeks post-conceptionSeeing: least mature sense at birth
Why do they scan edges of high contrast areas?
Serves to strengthen connections between neurons in visual brain centers
when and why do babies develop a fear of heights?
about the time babies can crawl, the develop learned fear of heights
Infant reflexes
rooting reflexpalmar reflexmoro reflexstepping reflextonic neck reflex
What happens to reflexes as we get older?
disappear or elaborate oer first year of live
What are the three laws of developmental direction?
Cephalo-caudal (from head to toe)Proximal - distal (parts closes to body come under control earlier than those farther out)Gross-fine (from general, unrefined to specific, refined)
What are the three main periods of brain develpment?
Cell (over) ProductionCell migrationCell elaboration
What part of the brain is most developed at birth and what does it do?
Brainstem and midbrainpeforms without conscious awareness - reflexes, states of alertness, basaic biological functions, coordination of movement
Synaptic connections with age
"use them or lose them"
the scientific study of behavior and the relationship of that behavior to the environment in which it occurs
a dynamical process of adaptation to the environment in which learning plays an important rold by providing us with the flexibility to meet changing demands
locations along a chromosome that determine physi al or behavioral characterisitcs
an organisms interactions with the environment that produces ad etectable change
setting a child is put into
the reducing of a phenomenon to a lower level of analysis
analyzing at the scale that is most applicable for the area of study
Process involving the division of a cell into two new cells. Chromosomes are duplicated during the process so that each new cell has exactly the same genetic code as the original cell and all the other cells
The type of cell divisions that take place in reproductive organs and reduce by half the chromosome number for the formation of gametes
Dominant gene
term used to describe alleles that are stronger relative to other alleles and more likely to express themselves in the phenotype
recessive gene
term used to describe an allele that is masks by a dominant allele. recessive alleles are expressed in the phenotype only when both alleles in a pair are present
the actual expression of a genetic trait that results from genotype and environmental transacitons
one's actual genetic makeup
occurs when a characteristic or behavior is the result of many genes rather than a single gene
the stimulation of sensory receptors and their connections to meurons travelling to the sensory center in the CNS
organized response to a stimulus. an integration response to a sensation that results in a functional response
relatinoship involving the eliciting of unconditioned response by an unconditioned stimulus