Chapters 5,6,7,9 Sociology

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Chapters 5,6,7,9 Sociology

These Are For Daina K

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Internal Social Control
Takes place though the social process individuals internalize societal norms a values that presribe how people behave and then follow those norms and values in their everyday lives
External Control
socail control involes the use of negaitave sansction that prescribe certain behaviors and set forth the punshments for rule brakers and non conformists
is rotted in societal factors such as rapid social change and lack of social intergration among people
Strain theroy
 pople feel strain when they are exposed to culture goal is that they are unable to obtain b/c they do not have acess to culturally approved means of acheiven goals
4 types of deviance -Innovation
occus when people accept socitys goals but adopt disappproved meand for acheveing them
4 types or deviance -Ritualism
occurs when people give up on society goals but still adhere to the socially approved means for acheiving them
4 types of deviance - Retreatism
occurs when people abandon both the approved goals and the approved means of achieving them.
4 types of deviance - Rebellion
occurs when pople challenge both the approved goals and the approved means for acheve them and adovcate and alternate set of goals of meaning
Illegitimate opportunity structes
Circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activites what they cannot achieve through legitimate channels.
libral femminist
womens deviance and crime are rational respnse to gender discrimination that women experience in families and the workplace
Radical feminist
views the cause of womens crime as originating in patriarchy mate domination over females
Social econmicstatus
a combined measure that in order to determine class laocation attempts to classify individual families or house holds in term of factor such as a income occupation and education
Working poor
the world poor account for about 20% of the us population. members of the working poor class live from just abouve to just below poverty line they typicall hold unskilled jobs , seasonal migrat job in agricultur , lower paid factory jobs and service jobs.
Absoulte Poverty
exist when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necissities of life.
Relative proverty
exists when people may be able to afford basic nesessities but are still unable to maintain average standard of living.
Job deskilling
a reduction in the proficiency needed to perform a specific job that leads to corresponding reduction in the wages for the job.
is a type of ceremony actviaty that functions as a symbloic meaing where by apprecation is regulary conveyed to recipient.
White collar crime
illegal activities committed by people in the course of thir employment of financial affairs.
Corapte Crime
illegal acts committed by coporate emplyees on behalf of the corporation and with it support.
4 major punishment -Retribution
is punishmentthat a person recieves for inifring on the rights of others. offerder and  is based on the premis that the punshment should fit the crime.
4 types of Punisment -General detreece
seeks to reduce criminal activity by instilling a fear punishment in the genral public.
4 types of punishment -incapactation
is based on the assumption that offenders who are detained in prison or an excuted will be unable to commit addional crimes.
4 types of punishment - Rebalilition
seeks to return offenders to the community a law abing citizens by providing theapy or vocational or education training.
Intergenerational mobility
is the socail movement expericed by family members from one generation to the next
Intragenerational mobility
is the social movement of indiviuals within thier own life time
Closed system of stratification
is the boundaries between levels in the hiergohies of social stratification a rigid and people postions ar set by ascribed status.
Caste system
is a system of social inequality in which people status is permanetly determind at birth based on their parents ascribed characteristics.
Class system
is a type of stratificationbased on the ownership and control of resouces and the type of work people do
Horzontail Mobility
occurs when people experence a gain or loss in postion and or income that soen not produce a change in their place in the class structure.
Vertical mobility
movement up or downthe class the another...
Class(bourgeosis) Constits of those who won the means of production
Working Class (proletariat)
Consists  of those who must sell their labor to the owners in order to earn enough money to survie.
a feelings of powerlessness ansd estrangement from other people and from onself.
is a group to which the person belongs and with which aperson feela sense of identity...
is a group to which a person does not belong a which a person may feel a sense of competitivenss of hostility.
Instrumental ledership
is a goal or task oriented...
Expressive leadership
provides emotional support for members.
Authoritarian leaders
makes all major decisions and assign to members.
Demoractic leaders
encourage group disscusion and decision makeing through consensus building...
Lassiez fare leaders
who are only minimally involved in decision making and encouges the group members to make thier own decisons.
the process by which member of a cohesive grop arrive at decison that many indiviaul member privatly  believe
Normative organiztion
when we want to purse some common insterst or gain personal satisfaction or prestrige from being a member
Coercive organzition
people do not voluntarily becomes of converive organiztion association that people are join.
Utilitarian organzation
we volutarily  join utilitarian organiztion whem they can provide us with a material reward that we speak.
is the process by which tadiotnal methods of social organztion characterized by informailyt and spontaleiy are gradually repaced by efficiently adminsterrd formal rules and procedures
Ideal type
is an abstract model that describes the recurring characterists pf some phenomeon such as bureaucacy.
Dimensions of fomal rationality. -Efficiency
means the search for the best means to the end.
Demaensions of formal rationality -predicibility
means a world with no suprises
Demensions of formal rationality -Emphasis on quanity rather than quality
usually large quantites rather that quality.
Dual labor market
how social class sitinction are perptuatd thru different types of employment
Iron law of olgarchy
according to robert michels the endency of bureacucracies be ruled by a few people.