Chapter 7 Study Guide

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Chapter 7 Study Guide


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What is High-Tech politics  ?
A politics in which the behavior of citizens and policymakers and the political agenda itself are increasingly shaped by technology.
What is Mass media ?
Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the Internet, and other means of popular communication.
What is Media events
Events purposely staged for the media that nonetheless look spontaneous. In keeping with politics as theater, media events can be staged by individuals, groups. and government officials, especially presidents.
What does G.O.T.V stand for?
Program that stood "Get Out the Vote," today it more likely means ''Get on TV"
What seven principles did the news management in the Ronald Reagan white house operate on?
1. Plan ahead.2. Stay on the offensive3. Control the flow of info.4. Limit reporters' access to the president.5. Talk about the issues you want to talk about.6. Speak in one voice.7. Repeat the same message many times.
What are press conferences
Meetings of public officials with reporters.
What is investigative Journalism?
The use of in-depth reporting to unearth scandals, putting reporters in adversarial (opposes, makes enemies) relationships with political leaders.
What are the two types of media?
Print media: Newspaper and magazines, as compared with broadcast media.
Broadcast media: Television and radio, as compared with print media.
What is narrowcasting?
Media programming on cable TV or the Internet that is focused on one topic and aimed at a particular audience. Ex. MTV, ESPN, AND C-SPAN.
What are sound bites ?
Short video clips of approximately 10 seconds, typically, they are all that is shown from a politicians speech on the nightly television  news.
What are chains?
Newspapers published by massive media conglomerates (a corporation consisting of a number of subsidiary companies) that account for over four-fifths of the nation's daily newspaper circulation, often these chains control broadcast.
What are beats?
Specific locations from which news frequently emanates ( to proceed), such as Congress or the White House. Most top reporters work a particular beat, thereby becoming specialists in what goes on at that location.
What are trial balloons?
An international news leak for the purpose of assessing the political reaction.
What is a talking head?
A shot of a person's face talking directly to the camera. Since this is visually unappealing the major commercial networks rarely show a politician talking one-on-one for very long.
What is the minimal effect hypothesis?
Scholars  looked for direct impacts-for example, whether the media affected how people voted. Then the media focus turned to how the media affected what Americans think about more, more positive result were uncovered.
What is in the policy agenda?
The issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at the time.
What are policy entrepreneurs?
People who invest their political "capital" in an issue. According to John Kingdon, a policy entrepreneur "could be in or out of government , in elected or appointed positions, in interest groups or research organizations."