Chapter 7: Social Process Theories

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social process theory
the view that criminality is a function of people's interactions with various organizations, institutions, and processes in society
social learning theory
the view that people learn to be aggressive by observing others acting aggressively to achieve some goal or being rewarded for violent acts
social control theory
the view that people commit crime when the forces binding them to society are weakened or broken
social reaction (labeling) theory
the view that people become criminals when they are labeled as such and accept the label as a personal identity
process of human development and enculturation. Socialization is influenced by key social processes and institutions
parental efficacy
the ability of parents to be supportive of their children and effectively control them in concoercive ways
differential association theory
the view that people commit crime when their social leanring leads them to percieve more definitions favoring crime than favoring conventional behavior
culture conflict
recult of exposure to opposing norms, attitudes, and definitions or right and wrong, moral and immoral
neutralization theory
the view tha law violators learn to neutralize conventional valies and attitude,s enabling them to drift back and forth between criminal and conventional behavior
movement in and out of delinquency, shifting between conventional and deviant values
neutralization techniques
methods of rationalizing deviant behavior, such as denying responsibiity or blaming the victim
a strong moral sense that renders a person incapable of hurting others or violating social norms
commitment to conformity
a strong personal investment in conventional institutions, individuals, and processes that prevents people from engaging in behavior that might jeopardize their reputation and achievements
social bonds
the ties that bind people to society, including relationships with friends, family, neighbors, teachers, and employers. The elements of the socila bond include commitment, attachment, involvement, and belief
moral enrepenuer
a person who creates moral rules that reflect the values of those in poewr rather than any objective, universal standards of right and wrong
to apply negative labeling with enduring effects on a person's self-image and social interactions
successful degradation ceremony
a course of action or ritual in which someon's identity is publicly redefined and destroyed and he or she is thereafter viewed as social unacceptable
retrospective reading
the reassessment of a person's past to fit a current genralized label
primary deviance
a norm of violation of crime that has little or no long term influence on the violator
secondary deviance
a norm violation or crime that ocmes to the attention of signifcant others or social control agents, who apply a negative label that has long-term consequences for the violator's self-identity and social interactions
deviance amplifications
process whereby secondary deviacne pushes offenders out of maintstream society locks them into an escalating cycle of deviance, apprehension, labeling and criminal self-identity
racial profiling
the use of racil and ethnic characteristics by police in their determining whether a person is likely to commit a crime of engage in deviant and/or antisocial activities
reflected appraisal
when parents are alienated from their children, their negative labeling reduces their children's self-image and increases delinquency
diversion programs
programs of rehabilitation that remove offenders from the normal channels of the criminal justivee process, thus enabling them to avoid the stigma of a criminal label
permitting an offender to repay the victim or do useful work in the community rather than facing the stigma of a formal trial and a court-ordered sentence