Chapter 7 - Respiratory System - Diagnostic Tests And Procedures

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Diagnostic Tests And Procedures Related To The Respiratory System

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arterial blood gas (ABG)
analysis of arterial blood to determine the adequacy of lung function in the exchange of gases
abbreviation for the potential of hydrogen; measurement of blood acidity or alkalinity
abbreviation for partial pressure of oxygen; measurement of the amount of oxygen in the blood
abbreviation for partial pressure of carbon dioxide; measurement of the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
examination inside a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnostic or treatment purposes
use of a flexible endoscope, called a bronchoscope, to examine the airways
use of a flexible endoscope to examine the nasal passages and the pharynx to diagnose structural abnormalities, such as obstructions, growths, and cancers
examination methods
techniques used during physical examination to objectively evaluate the respiratory system
to listen; a physical examination method of listening to the sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope, such as auscultation of the chest for heart and lung sounds
a physical examination method of tapping the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size, border, or fluid content of a cavity, such as the chest
lung biopsy (Bx)
removal of a small piece of lung tissue for pathologic examination
lung scan / ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan
a two-part nuclear (radionuclide) scan of the lungs to detect abnormalities of ventilation (respiration) or perfusion (blood flow) made 1) after radioactive material is injected in the patient's blood, and 2) as the patient breathes radioactive material into the airways; comparison of the two scans indicates whether an abnormality exists in the airways or the pulmonary circulation
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
nonionizing image of the lung to visualize lung lesions
polysomnography (PSG)
recording of various aspects of sleep (i.e., eye and muscle movements, respiration, and brain-wave patterns) for diagnosis of sleep disorders
pulmonary function testing (PFT)
direct and indirect measurements of lung volumes and capacities
direct measurement of lung volume and capacity
tidal volume (TV or VT)
amount of air exhaled after a normal inspiration
vital capacity (VC)
amount of air exhaled after a maximal inspiration
peak flow (PF) / peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)
measure of the fastest flow of exhaled air after a maximal inspiration
pulse oximetry
noninvasive method of estimating the percentage of oxygen saturation in the blood using an oximeter with a specialized probe attached to the skin at a site of arterial pulsation, commonly the finger; used to monitor hypoxemia
x-ray imaging
chest x-ray (CXR)
x-ray imaging of the chest to visualize the lungs; directional terms identify the path of the x-ray beam to produce the radiograph:PA (posterior-anterior) = from back to frontAP (anterior-posterior) = from front to backlateral = toward the side (e.g., left lateral)
computed tomography (CT)
CT of the thorax is used to detect lesions in the lung; CT of the head is used to visualize the structures of the nose and sinuses
pulmonary angiography
x-ray imaging of the blood vessels of the lungs after the injection of contrast material