Chapter 7 Psychology

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Chapter 7 Psychology

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Anterograde Amnesia
Loss of memory for events that occur after a head injury
Focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events
A group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
Tendancy to remember similar or related items in groups
Conceptual hierarchy
multilevel classification system based on common properties among items
Connectionist Models
PDP models
hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of the information into durable memory codes stored in long-term memory
Decay theory
the idea that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time
Declarative memory system
memory for factual information
Dual-coding theory
Paivo's theory that memory is inhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall
linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
forming a memory code
encoding specific principal
the idea that the value of a retreival cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code
episodic memory system
chronological recollations of personal experiences
explicit memory
intentional recollation of previous experiences
flashbulb memory
unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentuous events
forgetting curve
graph showing retention and forgetting over time
implicit theory
type of memory apparent when retention is exhibited on a task that does not require intentional remembering
interference theory
the idea that people forget information because of competition from other material
keyword method
a mnemonic technique in which one associates a concrete word with an abstract word and generates an image to represent the concrete word
levels of processing theory
theory holding that deeper levels of mental processing result in longer lasting memory codes
link method
forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together
long term memory
an unlimited capacity store that can hold information for lengthy periods of time
long term potentation
a long lasting increase in neural excitability in synapses along a specific neural pathway
method of loci
mnemonic device that involves taking an imainary walk along a familiar pathway where images of items to be remembered are associated with certain locations
mnemonic devices
strategies for inhancing memory
nondeclarative memory system
memory for actions
continued rehearsal of material after one first appears to have mastered it
parallel distributed processing models
models of memory that assume cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks
proactive interference
a memory problem that occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information
procedural memory system
the repository of memores for actions, skills, and operations
reality monitoring
the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources or internal sources
a memory test that requires subjects to reproduce information on their own without any ques
the process of repetitively verbalizing or thining about information to be stored in memory
a memory test that requires a subject to memorize information a second time to determine how much time/effort is saved by having learned it before
keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconcious
the proportion of material retained
recovering information from memory stores
retrograde amnesia
loss of memories for events that occured prior to a head injury
retroactive interference
a memory problem that occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information
retrospective memory
the ability to remember events from the past or previously learned information
an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or sequence of events
a type of schema that organizes what people know about common activities
self-referent encoding
deciding how or whether information is personally relevent
semantic memory system
general  knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned
sensory memory
the preservation of information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second
serial-position effect
in memory tests, the fact that subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of the list than for items in the middle
short-term memory
a limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 20-30 seconds
source monitoring
the process of making attributions about the origin of memories
source monitoring error
an error that occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source
maintaining encoded information in memory over time
tip-of-the-toungue phenomenon
temporary inability to remember something accompanied by a feeling that it's just out of reach
transfer-appropriate processsing
the situation that occurs when the inital processing of information is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measures of attention