Chapter 5: Language Barrier And Bridge

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Language: Barrier And Bridge Word Knowledge

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Rules that govern the meaning of language, as opposed to its structure
Semantic rules
Words, word orders, phrases, or expressions that have more than one commonly accepted definition
Equivocal language
Words that gain their meaning through comparison
relative words
The tendency to view people or relationships as unchanging
Static evaluation
Language that is vague and unclear
Abstract language
Language that refers to specific things that people do or say
Behavioural language
A range of more to less abstract terms describing an event or object
Abstraction ladder
Rules that govern the way symbols can be arranged, as opposed to the meanings of those symbols.
Syntactic rules
Linguistic rules that help communicators understand how messages may be used and interpreted in a given context.
Pragmatic rules
The process of adapting one's speech style to match that of others with whom the communicator wants to identify
Speech mannerisms that emphasize a communicator's differences from others.
A language style in which speakers defer to listeners by using hedges, hesitations, intensifiers, polite forms, tag questions, and disclaimers.
Deferential language
A conclusion that is arrived at from an interpretation of evidence
Language that conveys the speaker's attitude rather than simply offering an objective description.
Emotive language
Statements that replace the personal pronoun/ with the less immediate word it, often with the effect of reducing the speaker's acceptance of responsibility for the statements.,
"It" statements
A statement that describes the speaker's reaction to another person's behaviour without making judgements about the behaviours worth
"I" statements
Statements in which the word but cancels out the expression that preceded it
"But" statements.
A statement that expresses or implies a judgement of the other person
"You" Statement
A statement that implies that the issue is the concern and responsibility of both the sender and receiver of a message.
"We" Statement
Cultures that use language primarily to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas as clearly and logically as possible.
Low-context cultures
Cultures that avoid direct use of language, relying instead on the context of a message to convey meaning,
High-context cultures
the notion that the worldview of a culture is shaped and relfected by the language its members speak
linguistic relativism
This hypothesis suggests that the language we speak affects how we interact with the world around us. 
sapir-whorf hypothesis