Chapter 4 Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory: Applications...

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Chapter 4 Notes And Book Coverage

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Freud's tool of assessment free association technique
Valid but not efficient, so Freud sought out new assessment methods including projective tests 
Projective Tests
defining feature is that they are ambiguous. Individual will project aspects of his or her own personality onto the ambiguous when interpreting it. May reveal underlying unconscious psychodynamic 
Rorschach Inkblot Test
Showed images to hospitalized patients and identified inkblots that elicited different responses from different psychiatric groups with 10 cards
Thematic Apperception Test  (TELL A TALE)
consists of cards depicting ambiguous scene. Person asked to make up a story based on each. Individual personality may be projected onto the stimuli
at any given developmental stage, the individual may experience a failure in the development of the instincts.
individual seeks to return to an earlier mode of satisfaction
Oral Personality Type
NarcissisticOthers seen only in terms of what they can give (feed)
Anal Personality Type
Sees excretion as symbolic of enormous power. Has anal triad
Anal Triad
1. Orderliness and cleanliness= defense against disorder2. Parsimony and stinginess=need to hold onto things3. Obstinacy=struggle over toilet training
Phallic Personality Type
different for men and womenMen= I AM MANExhibition quality is expressive of castration anxiety, must assert masculinity at all timesFemales=HYSTERICAL PERSONALITYUses seductive behavior to maintain interest of her father but deny sexual intent  
Therapeutic change
coming to grips with emotions and unconscious wishes in a safe environment
psychoanalysis frees people to resume normal psychological development
Redistributes energy so more is available for mature and more gratifying activities
Dominated by unconscious and id
puts ego in control and makes unconscious desires conscious
patients project attitudes from other relationships onto analyst. Analyst is a mirror onto which patient sees wishes and anxieties
Change occurs in analysis because of the 3 therapeutic factors
1. Conflict is less intense than it was in the original situation2. Analyst assumes an attitude different from that of the parents3. Patients are older and more mature
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
Follower of Freud, broke from him to put greater emphasis on social urges and conscious thoughts. Interested in bodily inferiorities and how people compensate for them
Inferiority complex
How a person copes with inferiority becomes a distinctive aspect of his or her personality functioning
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
Has a father/son relationship with Freud called "crown prince"
integrate various opposing forces of the psyche (inner and outer self; masculine and feminine self
Collective Unconscious
holds cumulative experiences of past generations; is universal. Contains universal images or archetypes
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
Focused on cultural conditions that affect neuroses. Concluded that interpersonal relationships are the core of healthy (and unhealthy) personality
Conflict between 3 ways of responding to basic anxiety
1. Moving toward2. Moving against3. Moving away
Moving Toward
excessive interest in being accepted, needed and approved of
Moving Against
assumes that everyone is hostile and that life is a struggle against all
Moving Away
shrinks away from others in neurotic detachment
Object Relations Theory
interested in interpersonal relations, object is thing toward which drive is directed. Concerned with how experiences with important people in the past are represented in the self and then, affects one's relationships with others in the present