Chapter 4: Chemical Bonds

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Chapter 4: Chemical Bonds

Chemical Compond Vocabulary For Ionic And Convalent Bonds. Starts Off With Ions And Goes To Minerals. 

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What is an ion?
An Ion is an atom or group of atoms that have become electrically charged. When an atom loses an electron, it loses a negative charge and becomes a positive ion. When an atom gains an electron, it gains a negative charge and becomes a negative ion. 
What is an Ionic Bond?
An Ionic Bond is an attraction between two positively charged ions. In an Ionic Bond, every ion is attracted to ions near it that have an opposite charge. Characteristic propoerties include Crystal Shape, High Melting Point, and Electrical Conductivity. 
What is a Polyatomic Ion?
An Polyatomic Bond is an ion that is made of more than one atom. In a chemical name the name of the positive ion comes first, followed by the name of the negative ion. You would change the last three letters of the negative ion to "ide". 
What is a Convalent Bond?
A Convalent Bond is a chemical bond that is formed when two atoms share electrons at the same time. 
What is a Double Bond?
A Double Bond are two pairs of electrons that are shared at the same time.
What is a Molecular Compound?
A Molecular Compound consists of molecules having convalently bonded atoms. Molecules are held close together, but forces holding them together are much weaker than those holding ions in an ionic solid. 
What does Polar mean?
Polar means that in a convalant bond electrons are shared unequally. Some atoms pull more strongly on the shared electrons than other atoms do. As a result, the electrons move closer to one atom causing the atoms to have slight electrical charges. 
What does Nonpolar mean?
Nonpolar means that valance electrons are shared equally. When atoms are Nonpolar, two valance electrons are pulling equally in different directions. 
What is a Mineral?
A Mineral is a naturally occuring solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition. The arrangment of particles in a mineral and the kinds of bonds holding them together determine properties such as crystal shape, hardness, and the way the crystal breaks apart.