Chapter 12 Prejudice Causes And Cures

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Social Psych 

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prejudice affects 
what can leave us vulnerable to prejudice 
Nationality, gender, sexual preference, religion, age, and even profession or hobbies
prejudice is an __ 
attitudes are made up of three components 
ØAn affective or emotional component, representing the type of emotion linked with the attitude (e.g. anger, warmth). ØA cognitive component, involving the beliefs or thoughts that make up the attitude. ØA behavioural component, relating to one’s action.
ØRefers to the general attitude structure and its affective (emotional) component.
prejudice can involve __ or ___ effect 
- positive- negative 
Øusually the term refers to a hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their membership in that group.
Øa generalization about a group of people, in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members.
- stereotype 
Øbehavioural component of prejudice and includes an unjustified, negative, or harmful action towards a member of a group, simply because of the person’s membership in the group.
ØAccording to social identity theory, other people are seen as belonging:
Øeither to our group (known as in-group) Øor to a different group (known as the out-group).
Øthe tendency in humans to evaluate in-group members more positively than out-group members.
- in group bias 
the in-group bias is __ 
what does it mean that the in-group biad is pervasize
people show this bias even under the most minimal conditions 
complete strangers are formed into groups using the most trivial criteria imaginable    
- minimal groups 
Those who shared the same ‘meaningless label’ liked... 
the members of their own group better (even if they didn't interact with one another) 
ØWhy do we show the in-group bias?
-ØBelonging to a group gives us a social identityØHaving a social identity contributes to feelings of self-esteem.
what does it mean that Belonging to a group gives us a social identity
Those who identify with a group will be more likely to discriminate against an out-group.  This is especially true if the person’s sense of identity is threatened 
what does it mean that Having a social identity contributes to feelings of self-esteem.
When self-esteem is threatened, people are more likely to denigrate the out-group members as a means of restoring their own self-esteem
Øthe perception that those in the out-group are more similar (homogeneous) to each other than they really are and more similar than the members of the in-group are to each other.
out group homogeneity 
In order to explain how stereotypical beliefs affect cognitive processing, give two-step model 
first  the automatic process then the controlled process
which the stereotypes are automatically triggered
automatic process 
Øwhich the person decides whether or not to accept the stereotype.
controlled process 
ØChange people’s perceptions of “us” vs. “them” ØPromote a common identity or emphasize “superordinate” groups to which both in-group/out-group members belong (see Esses et al, 2006). ØProvide people with an alternative route to self-esteem.
behavioral component 
- discrimination 
affective component 
cognitive component