Chapter 12 APUSH

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Chapter 12 APUSH

Chapter 12

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Second Great Awakening 

The Second Great Awakening  (1790–1840s[1]) was a period of great religious revival that extended into theantebellum period of the United States, with widespread Christian evangelism and conversions. It was named for the Great Awakening, a similar period which had transpired about half a century beforehand. It generated excitement in church congregations throughout New England, the mid-Atlantic, Northwest and the South. Individual preachers such as Charles Grandison Finney, Lyman Beecher, Barton Stone, Peter Cartwright, and Asahel Nettleton became very well known as a result. Evangelical participation in social causes was fostered that changed American life in areas such as prison reform, abolitionism, and temperance.
• Lyman Beecher 

Lyman Beecher (October 12, 1775 – January 10, 1863) was a Presbyterian minister,temperance movement Founder (American Temperance Society) Co-founder[1] and leader, and the father of 13 children, and a leader of the Second Great Awakening of the United States.
• Unitarians 
Unitarianism as a theology is the belief in the single personality of God, in contrast to thedoctrine of the Trinity (three persons in one God). [1] Unitarianism as a movement is based on this belief, and, according to its proponents, is the original God-concept of Christianity.

• Temperance reformers 
temperance movement is a social movement against the use of alcoholic beverages. Temperance movements may criticize excessive alcohol use, promote complete abstinence, or pressure the government to enact anti-alcohol legislation.
“ Cult of True Womanhood”/“Cult of Domesticity” 
The Cult of Domesticity or Cult of True Womanhood (named such by its detractors) was a prevailing view among upper and middle class white women during the nineteenth century, in Great Britain and the United States. (Virtues, raise kids, support husbands)
The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, known as the Shakers, is a Protestant religious sect.
 Horace Mann 
Horace Mann (May 4, 1796 – August 2, 1859) was an American education reformer, and a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1827 to 1833. He served in theMassachusetts Senate from 1834-1837. In 1848, after serving as Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education since its creation, he was elected to the US House of Representatives. Mann was a brother-in-law to author Nathaniel Hawthorne.
 The McGuffy Reader 

Two of the best known school books in the history of American education were the 18th century New England Primer and the 19th century McGuffey Readers. Of the two, McGuffey's was more popular and widely used. In addition to the commonly known elementary readers, McGuffey also published High School and Literary Readerin 1889.It is estimated that at least 120 million copies of McGuffey's Readers were sold between 1836 and 1960, placing its sales in a category with the Bible and Webster's Dictionary. Since 1961 they have continued to sell at a rate of some 30,000 copies a year. No other textbook bearing a single person's name has come close to that mark.McGuffey's Readers are still in use today in some school systems, and by parents for homeschoolingpurposes.
• Dorothea Dix 
Dorothea Lynde Dix (April 4, 1802 – July 17, 1887) was an American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and theUnited States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. During the Civil War, she served as Superintendent of Army Nurses.
American Colonization Society 

The American Colonization Society (in full: The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America) was the primary vehicle for proposals to return black Americansto greater freedom in Africa, and helped to found the colony of Liberia in 1821–22, as a place to send people who were formerly enslaved.[1][2] Liberia is situated on the coast of West Africa. From 1821 thousands of black Americans moved there from the United States, and during the next 20 years the colony continued to grow and establish economic stability. In 1847, the legislature of Liberia declared itself an independent state.
• William Lloyd Garrison/The Liberator 
William Lloyd Garrison (December 13, 1805 – May 24, 1879) was a prominent Americanabolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, he promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. Garrison was also a prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement and a notable critic of the prevailing conservative religious orthodoxy that supported slavery and opposed suffrage for women.
The Grimke Sisters 
Sarah Grimké (1792-1873) and Angelina Grimké Weld (1805-1879), known as the Grimké sisters, were 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights.The Grimké sisters were born in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. Sarah Moore Grimke was born on November 26, 1792 and Angelina Emily Grimke was born on November 26, 1805. Throughout their lives, they traveled throughout the North, lecturing about their first hand experiences with slavery on their family's plantation. Among the first women to act publicly in social reform movements, they received abuse and ridicule for their abolitionistactivity. They both realized that women would have to create a safe space in the public arena to be effective reformers. They became early activists in the women's rights movement.
 Lucretia Mott & Elizabeth Cady Stanton 
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902) was an Americansocial activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early woman's movement. HerDeclaration of Sentiments, presented at the first women's rights convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is often credited with initiating the first organized woman's rights and woman's suffrage movements in the United States.[1]
Seneca Falls Conference, 1848
However, it was not until 1848 that Mott and Stanton organized a women's rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York. Stanton noted theSeneca Falls Convention was the first public women's rights meeting in the United States. Stanton's resolution that it was "the duty of the women of this country to secure to themselves the sacred right to the elective franchise" was passed against Mott's opposition. Over the next few decades, women's suffrage became the focus of the group's campaigning. Mott signed the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments. While Stanton is usually credited as the leader of that effort, it was Mott's mentoring of Stanton and their work together that organized the event. Mott's sister, Martha Coffin Wright, also helped organize the convention and signed the declaration.
 New Harmony, Indiana/Robert Owen 
New Harmony is a historic town on the Wabash River in Harmony Township, Posey County,Indiana, 15 miles (24 km) north of Mount Vernon, Indiana, the county seat. The town's population has remained relatively constant over the years at around 1,000 residents. As of the 2000 census, the town population was 916. It is part of the Evansville, Indiana, metropolitan area. Many of the old Harmonist buildings still stand and have been restored. The New Harmony State Memorial is located here. Just to the south of town on State Road 69 is Harmonie State Park. Local news and politics are discussed on the New Harmony Watch Discussion Board at New Harmony Watch
Bishop Hill, Illinois 
The Bishop Hill Colony was communistic in nature, as dictated by Jansson. Thus, everything was owned by everyone and no one had more possessions than another. Work in the colony was highly rigorous and regimented. It wasn't uncommon to see hundreds of people working together in the fields or large groups of laborers engaged in some other task.
 Oneida, N.Y./”Utopia” 
The Oneida Community was a utopian commune founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848 in Oneida, New York. The community believed that Jesus Christ had already returned in the year 70, making it possible for them to bring about Christ's millennial kingdom themselves, and be free of sin and perfect in this world, not just Heaven (a belief called Perfectionism). communalism
 Brook Farm, Mass./Rev. G. Ripley 
In the late 1830s Ripley became increasingly engaged in "Associationism", an early Fourierist socialistmovement. In October 1840 he announced to the Transcendental Club his plan to form an Associationist community based on Fourier's Utopian plans.[37] His goals were lofty. As he wrote, "If wisely executed, it will be a light over this country and this age. If not the sunrise, it will be the morning star."[38]/////////George Ripley (October 3, 1802 – July 4, 1880) was an American social reformer, Unitarianminister, and journalist associated with Transcendentalism. He was the founder of the short-lived Utopian community Brook Farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist,philosopher, and poet, best remembered for leading the Transcendentalist movement of the mid 19th century. His teachings directly influenced the growing New Thought movement of the mid 1800s.[1] While he was seen as a champion of individualism and prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society.
 Thoreau/“Walden” Pond
Walden (first published as Walden; or, Life in the Woods) by Henry David Thoreau is an American classic. The work is part personal declaration of independence, social experiment, voyage of spiritual discovery, and manual for self reliance.[1]Published in 1854, it details Thoreau's sojourn in a cabin near Walden Pond, amidst woodland owned by his friend and mentor Ralph Waldo Emerson, near Concord, Massachusetts. However, Emerson's lack of enthusiasm for the project can be seen in this thought delivered during Thoreau's funeral: