Chapter 10: Human Development Across The Life Span

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Psych Test 2; Chapter 10 Of Weiten Text

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the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death
a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg
prenatal period
exents from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy
germinal stage
the first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception
a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother's bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother
fetal stage
the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth
age of viability
the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth
fetal alcohol syndrome
a collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy
motor development
refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities
cephalocaudal trend
the head-to-foot direction of motor development
proximodistal trend
the center-outward direction of motor development
development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one's genetic blueprint
developmental norms
indicate the typical (median) age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities
refers to the close emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers
separation anxiety
emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment
fast mapping
the process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure
occurs when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is meant to
occur when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than it is meant to
telegraphic speech
consists mainly of content words; articles, prepositions, and other less critical words are omitted
occur when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do not apply
a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established
cognitive development
refers to transitions in youngsters' patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving
object permanence
develops when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible
Piaget's term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spits of changes in their shape or appearance
the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects
the inability to envision reversing an action
thinking is characterized by a limited ability to share another person's viewpoint
the belief that all things are living
secondary sex characteristics
physical features that distinguish one sex from the other but that are not essential for reproduction
the stage during which sexual functions reach maturity, which marks the beginning of adolescence
primary sex characteristics
the structures necessary for reproduction
the first occurrence of menstration
the first occurence of ejaculation
an abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive deficits that include memory impairment
fluid intelligence
involves basic reasoning ability, memory capacity, and sppeed of information processing
crystallized intelligence
involves the ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving
refers to the biologically based categories of female and male
refers to culturally constructed distinctions between femininity and masculinity
gender stereotypes
widely held beliefs about females' and males' abilities, personality traits, and social behavior
gender differences
actual disparities between the sexes in typical behavior or average ability
gender roles
expectations about what is appropriate behavior for each sex