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AP US History . Ch. 9

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Franchise extended - more people were given the right to vote, even men who owned no land. Spoils system - "To the victor go the spoils" - the winner of the election may do whatever they want with the staff. Jackson made more staff changes than any previous president, firing many people and replacing them with his own.
Dorr Rebellion
Rhode Island's legislature was conservative and blocked all efforts to reform. Thomas Dorr formed "People's Party" and sumitted a new construction they had drafted-overwhelmingly approved by pop. vote. Legis. denied when Dorr formed new govt. with himself as gov. the old govt. imprisoned them-rebellion failed but legis. had drafted new const. exanding suffrage.
Second Party System
Since the 1840's, two major political parties have managed to eliminated all competition. Democrats and Republicans have controlled nearly all government systems since the 1840's. Political competition between the Whigs and Democrats. Whigs= activist government, optimistic, evangelical; Democrats= limited central government, Jeffersonian principles; more foreign/other religions.
A meeting of party delegates elected in state primaries, caucuses, or conventions that is held every four years. Its primary purpose is to nominate presidential and vice-presidential candidates.
ideas from madison and jefferson (virginia and kentucky resolutions) and 10th amendment; since the federal govt is the creation of the states, the states should have power to void fed. laws; S. Carolina was eager to nullify tariff of abominations
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress
Nicholas Biddle
He was an American financier who was also president of the Bank of the United States. He was also known for his bribes. He was in charge during the bank war, where Jackson refused to deposit federal funds, which bled the bank dry. He also showed the corruption of the bank.
Cherokee Nation vs Georgia
In 1831 the US Supreme Court issued a decision that defined Native Americans as "domestic dependant nations" instead of foreign nations. This redesignation allowed states, such as Georgia, to disenfranchise Native American tribes of their lands. The Supreme Court refused to intervene stating that the Cherokee Nation didn't have control of their lands, because they were not a foreign nation with sovereignty rights. The "Cherokee Tribe is a state in the sense that it is a "distinct political society," but is not a foreign state within the meaning of Article III of the Constitution. It is more like a "domestic dependent nation" with the relation of the tribe to the Federal government like that of "ward to guardian." The tribes are separate nations within a nation."
Charles River Bridge vs Warren Bridge
1837 - Supreme Court ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot work to the disadvantage of the public. The Charles River Bridge Company protested when the Warren Bridge Company was authorized in 1828 to build a free bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the Charles River Company was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the Warren Company could build its bridge. 1837 - Contract Clause - one of the first decisions to find for the state in challenges invoking the Constitution's Contract Clause - signaled the Court's shift towards states' rights
Third political party that developed during the campaign of 1832 because of the debate between Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson. This party also developed as opposition to the Masonic secret society. Although it gained support from evangelical Protestant groups and people who were neglected by Jackson, the defeat of this third party cemented the two party system that is present today.
"Five Civilized Tribes"
A terms used by whites referring to the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chicksaws, and Semonoles due to their "Americanization" These Indians make remarkable efforts to adopt the ways of the whites and even abandon their our culture, however this was still not good enough for the whites when in 1828 Georgia’s government declared their council illegal and asserted its own jurisdictions. These tribes also felt the heavy blows of the Indian Removal Act.
Maysville Road Bill
1830 - The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
1832 - Jackson, in his veto message of the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., said that the bank was a monopoly that catered to the rich, and that it was owned by the wealthy and by foreigners.
Recharter Bill
The Bank of the United States was chartered by Congress in 1791; it held government funds and was also commercial. It wasn't rechartered in 1811, but a second bank was established in 1816 (1/5 government owned). Jackson opposed it, saying it drove other banks out of business and favored the rich, but Clay favored it. Nicholas Biddle became the bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
Specie Circular
1863 - The Specie Circular, issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. The Circular required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed
Robert Hayne Debate
1829-1830- lasted for 9 days 1. over the sale of western land- south allied with the west 2. Hayne from SC spoke against tariff and in favor of nullification 3. Webster argued for union" liberty and union, nowand forever..inseperable" 4. Ramifications- increased sectionalism, WEBs please allied North - large hand in saving union
They were a radical faction of the Democratic Party that existed from 1835 until the mid-1840s. Martin van Buren incorporated many ideals from the group. (1835) were Democrats who wanted reform and opposed tariffs, banks, monopolies, and other places of special privilege.
Penny Press
inexpensive, widely circulated papers that became popular in the 19th century first American media to be supported primarily through advertising revenue newspapers printed for mass audiences, used in the "Log Cabin and Hard Cider" campaign to help Harrison and the election
Soft Money
people who want more money in circulation, issue money unbacked by gold/silver. believers in rapid economic growth and speculation.
Ashburton-Webster Treaty
Ashburton-Webster Treaty (Treaty of Washington), 9 August 1842, negotiated by Alexander Baring, First Lord Ashburton, for Britain, and US Secretary of State Daniel Webster. Several sources of friction between the 2 countries were removed, especially regarding those boundaries between British North America and the US which remained in doubt following the Treaty of GHENT. A particular problem had been the 12 000 square miles (approx 31 000 km2) disputed between NB and Maine, 5000 square miles (approx 13 000 km2) of which went to NB. The treaty also provided for the surveying, mapping, and marking of the agreed NB-Maine boundary, completed June 1847. It made some minor adjustments along the northern boundaries of Vermont and New York, and described for the first time the boundary from Lake Huron to Lake of the Woods.
Black Hawk
leader of a faction of Sauk and Fox Indians. Supported by part of the two tribes, Black Hawk contested the disposition of 50 million acres (20 million hectares) of territory that had supposedly been granted to the United States by tribal spokesmen in 1804. His decision to defy government orders to vacate tribal villages and fertile fields along the Rock River in Illinois resulted in the brief but tragic Black Hawk War of 1832., born 1767, Sauk Sautenuk, Virginia Colony died October 3, 1838, village on the Des Moines River, Iowa
born c. 1804, Georgia, U.S. died Jan. 30, 1838, Charleston, S.C. American Indian leader during the Second Seminole War, which began in 1835 when the U.S. government attempted to force the Seminole Indians off their traditional lands in Florida and into the Indian territory west of the Mississippi River.
Indian Territory
originally “all of that part of the United States west of the Mississippi, and not within the States of Missouri and Louisiana, or the Territory of Arkansas.” Never an organized territory, it was soon restricted to the present state of Oklahoma, excepting the panhandle and Greer county. The Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, Cherokee, and Chickasaw tribes were forcibly moved to this area between 1830 and 1843, and an act of June 30, 1834, set aside the land as Indian country (later known as Indian Territory). In 1866 the western half of Indian Territory was ceded to the United States, which opened part of it to white settlers in 1889. This portion became the Territory of Oklahoma in 1890 and eventually encompassed all the lands ceded in 1866. The two territories were united and admitted to the Union as the state of Oklahoma in 1907.
Great American Desert (Great Plains)
Plains Indians are popularly regarded as the typical American Indians. They were essentially big-game hunters, the buffalo being a primary source of food and equally important as a source of materials for clothing, shelter, and tools. Until supplanted by the white settlers from the 16th century onward, the Plains Indians occupied the area between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, which includes portions of both the United States and Canada. It is a vast grassland stretching from northern Alberta and Saskatchewan in Canada to the Rio Grande border of Texas. The Arapaho, Assiniboin, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Comanche, Plains Cree, Crow, Hidatsa, Kiowa, Mandan, Osage, Pawnee, and Sioux are Plains Indians.
"Log Cabin and Hard Cider"
Capitalizing on voters’ distress over the severe economic depression caused by the panic of 1837, the campaign deliberately avoided discussion of national issues and substituted political songs, partisan slogans, and appropriate insignia: miniature log cabins and jugs of hard cider were widely distributed to emphasize Harrison’s frontier identification, and the cry of “Tippecanoe and Tyler too” rang throughout the land, calling up Harrison’s dramatic triumph on the field of battle 29 years earlier. These appeals triumphed, with Harrison winning 234 electoral votes to incumbent Martin Van Buren’s 60.
Hard Money
Hard Money is specie, that is, gold and silver coin.Those who favored hard money have at different times fought different opponents. In the 1830s the fight was against banks, particularly the second Bank of the United States, which President Andrew Jackson and Senator Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri alleged defrauded the people and mixed in politics. Jackson's followers, including President Martin Van Buren, set up the Independent Treasury System in 1840–1841, but the Whigs abolished it.  
Old Northwest
The surviving British traders, however, wanted the Northwest set aside as Native American land, and continued unrest led Tecumseh and Shawnee Prophet to seek a permanent foothold for the Native Americans. Some western Americans, meanwhile, sought to extend the Northwest to Canada. The quarrel over the Northwest was a major cause of the War of 1812. The Treaty of Ghent (see Ghent, Treaty of), which ended the war, solved the problem of the Northwest. Despite opposition from British merchants in the region, Great Britain irrevocably gave the Northwest to the United States.