Ch 12 Psych Of Perception--Sound Localization

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Psych Of Perception

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Acoustic Shadow
the shadow created by the head that decreases the level of high-frequency sounds on the opposite side of the head. This is the basis of the localiation cue of interaural level difference. (ILD)
Architectural acoustics
the study of how sounds are reflected in rooms. an important concern for this is how these reflected sounds change the quality of the sounds we hear
auditory localization
the perception of the location of a sound source
auditory scene
the sound environment, which includes the location and qualities of individual sound sources
auditory scene analysis
the process by which listeners sort superimposed vibrations into separate sounds
auditory space
perception of where sounds are located in space. ______ extends around a listener's head in all directions, existing wherever there is a sound.
auditory stream segregation
the effect that occurs when a series of tones that differ in pitch or timbre are played so that the tones become perceptually separated into simultaneously occurring independent streams of sound
azimuth coordinate
in hearing, specifies location that vary from left to right relative to the listener
sounbinaural cue
sound localization that involves both ears
cone of confusion
a surface in the shape of a cone that extends out from the ear. Sounds originating from different locations on this surface all have the same interaural level of difference and interaural time difference, so information provided by these cues is ambiguous.
direct sound
sound that is transmitted directly from a sound source to the ears
distance coordinate
in hearing, this coordinate specifies how far the sound source is from the listener
elevation coordinate
in hearing, sound locations that are up and down relative to the listener
indirect sound
sound that reaches the ears after being reflected from a surface such as a room's walls
interaural level of difference (ILD)
the greater level of a sound at the closer ear when a sound source is positioned closer to one ear than to the other. this effect is most pronounced for high-frequency tones. the _____ provides a cue for sound localization.
Interaural time difference (ITD)
when a sound is positioned closer to one ear than to the other, the sound reaches the close ear slightly before reacing the far ear, so there is a difference in the time of arrival at the two ears. the ____ provides a cue for sound localization
Location cue
in hearing, characteristics of the sound reaching the listener that provide information regarding the location of a sound source
Melodic channeling
also called scale illusion
Melody schema
a representation of a familar melody that is stored in a person's memory. Existence of a melody schema makes it more likely that the tones associated with a melody will be perceptually grouped.
Monaural cue
sound localization cue that involves one ear
Onset time
the time at which a specific tone starts. when two tones start at different times, this provides information that they are coming from different sources
precedence effect
the effect that occurs when two identical or very similar sounds reach a listener's ears separated by a time interval of less than about 50-100ms, and the listener hears the sound that reaches his or her ears first
principles of auditory grouping
Principles such as similarity and good continuation that operate to group sounds into perceptual streams. 
reverberation time
the time it takes for a sound produced in an enclosed space to decrease to 1/1000th of its original pressure
scale illusion
an illusion that occurs when successive notes of a scale are presented alternately to the left and right ears. even though each ear receives notes that jump up and down in frequency, smoothly ascending or descending scales are heard in each ear. also called melodic channeling
signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio
the level of a sound signal in decibels minus the level of background noise in decibels
spectral cue
in hearing, the distribution of frequencies reaching the ear that are associated with specific locations of a sound. the differences in frequencies are caused by interactions of sound with the listener's head and pinnae.
ventriloquism effect
also called visual capture
visual capture
when sound is heard coming from its seen location, even though it is actually originating somewhere else.