CBC, WBC, RBC Lab Values

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CBC, RBC, WBC  va

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Normal hemoglobin (HBG) values:
 
13.5 - 16.5 male 12.0 - 15.0 female
Normal hematocrit (HCT) values are:
 
41 - 50 male  36 - 44 female
Normal RBC count is: 
 
4.5 - 5.5 male 4.0 - 4.9 (x 106 /ml) female
Normal platelet count is: 
 
100,000 to 450,000
Normal WBC count is: 
 
4,500 - 10,000
Normal segmented neurtophil count is:
 
54 - 62%
Normal band form count is: 
 
3 - 5%  (above 8% indicates left shift)
Normal basophil count is: 
 
0-1%
Normal eosinophil count is: 
 
0-3%
Normal lymphocyte count is:  24-44%
 
24-44%
Normal monocyte count is: 
 
3-6%
Increased WBC count may be suggestive of: 
 
Bacterial/viral infection, leukemia.
Reduced RBC values (anemia) may be suggestive of: 
 
Hemorrhage, bacterial infections, low B-12, kidney disease (erythropoietin, which signals the red bone marrow in the bones to create RBCs, is made in the kidneys).
Decreased HBG may be suggestive of: 
 
Anemia due to nutritional deficiencies, blood loss, destruction of blood cells internally, or failure to produce blood in the bone marrow.
Decreased HCT may be suggestive of: 
 
Anemia due to nutritional deficiencies, blood loss.
Reduced platelet count may be suggestive of: 
 
Thrombocytopenia, acute blood loss, drug effects (such as heparin), infections w/sepsis, entrapment of platelets in an enlarged spleen, bone marrow failure from diseases such as leukemia.
RBC function is to:
 
Transport oxygen bound to HBG.  Also transports small amounts of carbon dioxide
Neutrophil function:
 
They are active phagocytes.  They increase rapidly in number during short-term or acute infection.  "First responders" to infection.
Eosinophil function:
 
Increase during allergies, kill parasitic worms.
Basophil function:
 
Responds to inflammation.  Granules contain histamine (vasodilator), which is discharged at sites of inflammation. 
Granulocytes include: 
 
The "Phils":  neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
Agranulocytes include:
 
Lymphocytes and monocytes
Lymphocyte function:
 
Important in the "immune response."  B lymphocytes produce antibodies.  T lymphocytes fight infections and tumors and also active B lymphocytes.
Monocyte function: 
 
Phagocytes that become macrophages in the tissues.  They are the "clean-up team."  They increase in number during chronic infections, such at TB.
Monocyte increase may indicate:
 
Long-term infection
Neutrophil increase may indicate:
 
New-onset (acute) infection.
Platelet function:
 
Clot blood.  Are not "cells", but fragments of megakaryocytes.
Blood cell formation: 
 
Hemocytoblasts (stem cells) become secondary stem cells (either lymphoid stem cells or myeloid stem cells).  Lymphoid stem cells become lymphocytes.  Myeloid stem cells become either:  erythrocytes, platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, or basophils.
RBC formation: 
 
Includes the kidney (releases erythropoietin), which stimulates red bone marrow in the bones to produce RBCs.  May be stimulated w/decreased RBC count, decreased O2 in blood, or increased O2 demand in the tissues.
Normal and therapeutic PT / INR values:
 
Normal INR should be appx. 1.0.  Therapeutic level (prevent DVT) is between 2-3.  This test is done during warfarin (Coumadin) therapy.  Normal PT should be between 10-12, but INR is generally used instead. The HIGHER the INR, the thinner the blood.  Too high is increased risk of bleeding problems.
Normal PTT values: 
 
Normal is between 30-45 seconds.  This test is generally done while on heparin therapy (Lovenox). 
Trick to remembering which test goes with which drug:  PT / PTT
 
Count the letters in the word WARFARIN (8-letters), then add the letters from the corresponding test (PT--2 letters).  You end up with 10 letters.  Count the letters in HEPARIN (7), then add the correct test (PTT--3 letters).  When the correct test is matched up to the correct drug, you should end up with (letters).  Simple, but works.  This works with Coumadin/PT and Lovenox/PTT also.
PT / INR test is used during:      PTT test is used during: 
 
PT/INR:  Warfarin (Coumadin) therapy   PTT:  Heparin (Lovenox) therapy