Cardiovascular System Anatomy And Physiology 2

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Mohammed Asads Anatomy And Physiology.

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What makes up the cardiovascular system?
Blood,heart, and blood vessels
What makes up the lymphatic system?
the lymph,lymphatic vessels that transport lymph, structures of organs containing lymphatic tissue,lymphocytes(white clustered blood vessels)
What is Hematology?
The study of blood,blood forming tissues, and disorders associated with them.
What are the functions of the blood?
Blood transports heat, oxygen,nutrients,wastes,and hormones.
It helps regulate PH,body temperature, and water contents of cells,
It helps prevent blood loss by blood clotting and combats toxins and microbes through certain phagocytic white blood cells or specialized plasma proteins.
What are the physical characteristics of blood?
Blood is heavier (viscocity)than water,its temperature is 38 degress C and 100.4 degrees F and has a PH of 7.35 to 7.45.
Blood is about 8 percent of body weight and is 4-6 liters.
What does blood consist of?
Blood consists of 55% plasma and 45% formed elements.
What does plasma consist of?
Plasma consists of 91.5% water, and 8.5% solutes. Main solutes are proteins(albumins,globulins fibronogen,prothombrin)nutrients,enzymes,hormones,respiratory gases,electrolytes,and waste products. 
What are the formed elements in blood?
eryhrocytes(red blood cells), leukocytes(white blood cells), and thrombocytes(platelets).
What are blood cells formed of?
pluipotemt hematopoeitic stem cells(hemocytoblasts)
What is Hemopoiesis or hemotopoiesis?
A process stimulated by hematopoietic growth factors which stimulate differentiation and proliferation of various blood cells. 
What does red bone marrow(myeloid tissue) produce?
Red Blood cells, granular leukocytes, and platelets.Lymphoid and myelod tissue produce agranular leukocytes. 
What is the fluid portion of blood called?
Erthroycytes(Red Blood Cells or RBC's)
Are biconcave discs without nuclei that contain hemoglobin.
What is the function of hemoglobin in RBC's?
transport oxygen and some carbon dioxide. Hemoglobin molecules are specialized components of the red blood cell plasma membrane that combine with oxygen to make oxyhemoglobin, or with carbon dioxide to form carbaminohemoglobin in this transport process. 
What is sickle cell anemia(SCA)?
a serious disorder caused by a genetic defect in the structure of hemoglobin.
How long do red blood cells live and why?
120 days, due to wear and tear of of their plasma membranes from squeezing through blood capillaries.  A healthy male has about 5.4 million RBC/mm3 of blood and a healthy female has about 4.8 million/mm3.
What is Erthrocyte formation called?
Erythropoiesis. Occurs in adult red bone marrow of certain bones and is stimulated by hypoxia, which stimulates the release of erythropoeitin by the KIDNEYS.
Reticulocyte Count
Average 0.5-1.5% of all Red Blood Cells is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erthyropoeisis useful for diagnosing and treating ANEMIA.
measures the % of red blood cells in the whole blood.Female has an average of 42%(range of 38-46%) and males have an average of 47%(40-54%).